coastal zone policies are important, they do not reflect the holistic approach envisaged by Australiaâ€™s National Oceans Policyâ€™. How does marine bioregional planning under section 176 of the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 compare with the concept of the Region Marine Plan that was proposed under Australiaâ€™s 1998 National Oceans Policy? What does â€˜holisticâ€™ mean in this context? Is the Marine Bioregional Plan an adequate approach for managing the range of activities that are carried out along Australiaâ€™s coastline that may impact on the health of Australiaâ€™s Oceans? If not, what else may be required?