This work is to be based mainly in academic sources and books and secondary on newspapers. The main focus of this paper MUST be the new Hungarian Constitution and the incompatibility of it with the EU polices. How the EU is planning to deal with this? the strengths and the limits of the EU conditionality in transforming politics and societies in Hungary.
Following is an abstract of this paper just as a base.
The Impact of Europeanization on New Democracies: The Case of Hungary’s Constitution.
After the Cold War, the European Community tried to establish a consensus where they thought that applying political conditionality would give it a chance to encourage establishment of democracy and protection of human rights in the third world countries (Hughes, Sasse, & Gordon, 2004). The European Union has therefore been acting normatively, making use of its economic and diplomatic tools to promote the adoption of norms on human rights and democracy. However, the conditions for membership had different impacts in different countries. Hungary and Poland lead the way to the democracy transition in Eastern Europe. As early as the socialist period, mid 1950 s for Poland and early 1960 s for Hungary, the atypical nature of Polish and Hungarian politics and their transitions, showed some signs that they were different from others.
This research focuses on the case of Hungary, a country that followed a pathway which led to reform reorientation. Led by Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban, the new constitution was a way towards change of a regime that signifies Hungary s formal end of post-communism transition that the country had started in 1989. However, this constitution could also weaken the Hungarian economy and put at risk the permanence of the state in the EU. The new constitution, effective from 1st January , skips “republic” from Hungary’s official name, and contains several paragraphs that Amnesty International reveals that violate international human rights. In December 2011, European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso wrote to Orban requesting the extraction of two recent bills related to Hungary s financial stability and the central bank however, Orban have discarded those requests.
The aim of this research is to find out the effectiveness of conditionality use by the European Union giving a particular focus on the case of Hungary. The specific research questions are;
1- Did the European Union achieve its objective of encouraging respect for human rights and democracy?
2- To what extent did the European Union apply conditionality to the member countries?