I want to make the report as follows at least 1750 words and if possible to be more than that will be good, I will attach an example of the Report and I hope that is similar to the example ..
I will attach a 1 – sheets experience.
2 – results of the experiment.
3 – Example of a full laboratory Report.
4 – Extra Results and additional information if there is.
5- How LABORATORY REPORT WRITING is required of me
((( I want to be as follows, as the report is required of me :::
LABORATORY REPORT WRITING
A good lab report does more than present data; it demonstrates the writer”s comprehension of the concepts behind the data. Merely recording the expected and observed results is not sufficient; you should also identify how and why differences occurred, explain how they affected your experiment, and shows your understanding of the principles the experiment was designed to examine. Bear in mind that a format, however helpful, cannot replace clear thinking and organized writing. You still need to organize your ideas carefully and express them coherently. The lab report should be a concise presentation of the work you have performed.
The laboratory report should be written in the past tense.
You should use font size 12 double spaced and Times New Roman and should not be double sided.
1. Title Page
2. Contents page
6. Methods and Materials (or Equipment)
11. References and Bibliography
1. The Title Page
Each report should have a cover page which will contain the following information:
• Lab title and experiment number
• Department of Forensic and Investigative Science
• Module number and title
• Module Instructors name
• Name of students and Student IDs
2. Table of contents
All pages should be numbered. A list of tables and figures should be provided.
3. The Abstract
The abstract is a condensed version of the entire paper. It allows a reader to quickly understand the purpose, methods, results and significance of your research without reading the entire paper. It summarizes four essential aspects of the report: the purpose of the experiment, key findings, significance and major conclusions. The abstract often also includes a brief reference to theory or methodology. The information should clearly enable readers to decide whether they need to read your whole report. The abstract should be one paragraph of 100-200 words. To reflect the content of the paper accurately, the abstract should be written after the final draft of your paper is complete, although it is placed at the beginning of the paper.
Be very careful NOT to copy text from the lab handout.
4. The Introduction
The introduction is more narrowly focussed than the abstract. It should supply sufficient background to information to allow the reader to understand and evaluate the results of the present study without referring to previous publications on the topic. In addition/However, the background information should make the reader familiar with the topic enough to comprehend your paper. Do not do an exhaustive review of the topic; it is not to make the reader an expert in your topic. Choose material carefully to provide the most salient background. The introduction should also provide the hypothesis that was addressed or the reason/rationale for the present experiment. The Introduction should be written in the present tense.
It should identify the area under discussion and give background information (historical and/or theoretical) about that problem. The introduction contains a brief literature review which should describe previous research conducted on the problem, and explain how the current experiment will help to clarify or expand the knowledge. This information should justify why you conducted the experiment. All references to previous studies should be properly documented. The introduction should end with a purpose statement (sometimes in the form of a hypothesis or null hypothesis): one sentence which specifically states the question your experiment was designed to answer.
a. Null Hypothesis
The null hypothesis, H0, represents a theory that has been put forward, either because it is believed to be true or because it is to be used as a basis for argument, but has not been proved. For example, in a clinical trial of a new drug, the null hypothesis might be that the new drug is no better, on average, than the current drug. We would write
• H0: there is no difference between the two drugs on average.
We give special consideration to the null hypothesis. This is due to the fact that the null hypothesis relates to the statement being tested, whereas the alternative hypothesis relates to the statement to be accepted if / when the null is rejected.
The final conclusion once the test has been carried out is always given in terms of the null hypothesis. We either “Reject H0 in favour of H1” or “Do not reject H0”; we never conclude “Reject H1”, or even “Accept H1”.
If we conclude “Do not reject H0”, this does not necessarily mean that the null hypothesis is true, it only suggests that there is not sufficient evidence against H0 in favour of H1. Rejecting the null hypothesis then, suggests that the alternative hypothesis may be true.
b. Alternative Hypothesis
The alternative hypothesis, H1, is a statement of what a statistical hypothesis test is set up to establish. For example, in a clinical trial of a new drug, the alternative hypothesis might be that the new drug has a different effect, on average, compared to that of the current drug. We would write
H1: the two drugs have different effects, on average.
The alternative hypothesis might also be that the new drug is better, on average, than the current drug. In this case we would write
H1: the new drug is better than the current drug, on average.
The final conclusion once the test has been carried out is always given in terms of the null hypothesis. We either “Reject H0 in favour of H1” or “Do not reject H0”. We never conclude “Reject H1”, or even “Accept H1”.
If we conclude “Do not reject H0″, this does not necessarily mean that the null hypothesis is true, it only suggests that there is not sufficient evidence against H0 in favour of H1. Rejecting the null hypothesis then, suggests that the alternative hypothesis may be true.
6. Methods and Materials
The Materials and Methods section should include sufficient technical information to allow the reader to reproduce the experiment. Be detailed but concise. Include all parts of the experiment (read your lab manual thoroughly) and include what you did, not what you were supposed to do (e.g., if you added 10 µl instead of 9 µl, report that you added 10 µl). The Materials and Methods sections should be in paragraph format (not a list of steps and DO NOT reiterate the lab experiment protocol) and written in the past tense. Include any formulas that will be used for calculations.
Summarize your results in an introductory sentence. Relate your results to your objective. Present the results in the easiest way for your reader to understand: graphs, tables, figures, etc. Spreadsheets are often a good approach. See section on preparation of graphs. All tables and figures must be referenced in the text, use a numbering system for identification of each one.
Explain the results of the experiment; comment on the shapes of the curves; compare results with expected results; give probable reasons for discrepancies from the theory; answer any questions outlined in the instructions and solve any problems that may have been presented. Tell why things happened, not only that they did happen. Comparisons should include numerical values and corresponding error percentages where relevant.
Do not present calculations and formulas in this section. Your calculations should be detailed in the Appendices under SAMPLE CALCULATIONS. Formulas should be discussed in the THEORY section.
DO NOT CHANGE YOUR RESULTS!!! If your results are not what you know or expect to be correct, then explain why in the Discussion section, but NEVER change your data.
The results section is usually dominated by calculations, tables and figures; however, you still need to state all significant results explicitly in verbal form.
The discussion should provide an interpretation of the results obtained. This section should not reiterate the results or the introduction. This should tie into your hypothesis and rationale for the experiment. Include any sources of error found, as well as the reasons if your results are not what you expected.
The conclusion should echo the aims and be as short as possible. Te Results and Discussion sections have discussed the results individually; the Conclusion section discusses the results in the context of the entire experiment. Usually, the objectives mentioned in the Introduction are examined so it can be determined whether the experiment succeeded or not. If the objectives were not met, you should analyze why the results were not as predicted.
You may or may not need to include a section titled Recommendations. This section appears in a report when the results and conclusions indicate that further work needs to be done or when you have considered several ways to resolve a problem or improve a situation and want to determine which one is best. You should not introduce new ideas in the recommendations section, but rely on the evidence presented in the results and conclusions sections. If you find that you need to include a recommendations section you have another opportunity to demonstrate how your research fits within the larger project of science, and the section can serve as a starting point for future dialogue on the subject. It demonstrates that you fully understand the importance and implications of your research, as you suggest ways that it could continue to be developed. Do not include a recommendations section simply for the sake of including one; this will waste your readers’ time and take up unnecessary space in your report.
10 References and Bibliography
References are items referred to in the report. A bibliography can include items not referred to but which the reader may find interesting.
A reference is an acknowledgement that in producing your own work you have used somebody else”s work.
All references to published material cited in the report are referred to by consecutive number or in alphabetical order, depending on the referencing method used, and collected at the end of the report.
You should place information in an Appendix that is relevant to your subject but needs to be kept separate from the main body of the report to avoid interrupting the line of development of the report. Anything can be placed in an appendix as long as it is relevant and as long as you made reference to it in the body of your report. You should not include an appendix simply for the sake of including one, though.
An appendix should include only one set of data, but additional appendices are acceptable if you need to include several sets of data that do not belong in the same appendix. Label each appendix with a letter, A, B, C, and so on. Do not place the appendices in order of their importance to you, but rather in the order in which you referred to them in your report.
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