Select two chief executive officers of your choice (current or retired). Select one chief executive officer from a law enforcement background and one chief executive from a non law enforcement background (eg: CEO of a large company or an entrepreneur etc, but not from the military).
You should compare and contrast the leadership style of the executives based on the literature presented in topic 1.
To complete this assignment, you should:
1. Provide an introduction, setting out the CEOs you will be discussing and provide an overview of the position they hold (or have held) and the environment in which they work (or worked). (1000 words)
2. Examine the various leadership theories and models in Topic 1 and comment on which of these closely align with your chosen CEOs and which do not. (1500 words)
3. Identify the similarities and differences between the two CEOs in terms of their leadership styles and analyse these. (1500 words)
Note: There is an expectation that the leadership theories and models that you discuss are explained in detail to show that you understand them and that you can apply that understanding to the leadership style of your CEOs.
Please select people about whom there is some literature available.
You will need to compare their own ideas about their leadership with those of other authors, therefore you need to make reference to reliable sources in relation to the chosen CEOs.
This assignment is designed for the student to demonstrate their understanding of the theory of executive leadership and that they can apply it in a practical context.
Topic 1: The Executive Leader
On completion of this subject students will be able to:
• Investigate, analyse and synthesise the broad body of knowledge of the history and context of leadership in policing, including relevant developments overseas;
• Demonstrate mastery of the key theoretical underpinnings in leadership generally, public sector leadership, and policing leadership, and critically reflect on the impact of these on police professional practice;
• Apply established leadership theories to the policing context and critically analyse the application of these with reference to your professional practice; and
• Demonstrate an ability to analyse the contextual influences on leadership in your organisation and to develop a strategic leadership approach capable of being communicated to a range of professional and high level audiences.
Prescribed text(s) for the whole subject:
Adlam, R., & Villiers, P. (2003). Police leadership in the 21st century, Philosophy, doctrine and developments. Winchester: Waterside Press.
Howell, J. P., & Costly D. L. (2006). Understanding behaviours for effective Leadership (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education.
Newburn, T. (2008). Handbook of policing (2nd ed.). Devon, UK: Willan Publishing. (NOTE: This is an ‘e-book’ available through CSU library)
Dalglish, C. & Miller, P. (2010) Leadership: Understanding its Global Impact. Prahran. Tilde University Press.
Recommended reading / resources
Goleman, D., Boyatzis D., McKee, A. (2004). Primal leadership: Learning to lead with emotional intelligence. Boston. Harvard Business School Press.
Heifetz, R. A. (2000). Setting the frame. In Leadership without easy answers (pp. 11-66). Boston. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Edelbacher, M., Delip K. D., Marenin, O. (2007). Comparative problems in policing: Interviews with nineteen police leaders from different nations. New York. Edwin Mellen Press.
MacKay, H. (2007). Advance Australia – where? Sydney. Huchatte
Topic 1 The Executive Leader
Scope of this Topic
• major theories of leadership and their practical application in the policing context;
• the reality of the executive leadership/government interface and its ethical and effective management;
• the importance of a positive connection between accountability, ethical performance and results; and
• values and capabilities relevant to executive leadership in a contemporary democratic society
Reading 1.1 Henry, A. (2005). Components of effective leadership in Australia. In Leadership revelations, an Australian perspective: Reflections from outstanding leaders (pp. 157-168). Sydney: CCH Australia Limited.
Reading 1.2 Hughes, R. L., Ginnett, R. C., & Curphy, C. J. (1993). Leadership is everyone’s business. In Leadership: Enhancing the lessons of experience (2nd ed., pp. 3-29). Chicago: Irwin-Times, Mirror Higher Education Group.
Reading 1.3 Heifetz, R. A. (2000). Chapter 1, Values in leadership & Chapter 2, To lead or mislead. In Leadership without easy answers (Chap. 1 & 2., pp. 13-48). Cambridge Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Reading 1.4 Kelly, J. (2004). Corporate leadership reflections of CEO and CEO advisor. Long Range Planning, 37, 389-398.
Reading 1.5 Cosgrove, General P. (2002, December). Key features of being an effective leader in times of adversity. Platypus Magazine, 77, 39-43.
Reading 1.6 Dupont, B. (2003). Preserving institutional memory in Australian police services. In Australian Institute of Criminology, Trends and issues in crime and criminal justice. Canberra. Retrieved September 16, 2011
Prescribed text reading for this topic
Heffernan, W. C. (2002). Three types of leadership. In R. Adlam & P. Villiers (Eds.), Leadership in the 21st Century. UK: Waterside Press.
Alderson, J. (2002). Police leadership: A search for principles. In R. Adlam & P. Villiers (Eds.), Leadership in the 21st Century. UK: Waterside Press.
Golding, B. & Savage, S. P. (2008). Leadership and performance management. In T. Newburn (Ed.), Handbook of policing (2nd ed.). Devon: Willan Publishing. (NOTE: This is an ‘e-book’ available through CSU library).
Dalglish, C. & Miller, P. (2010) Leadership: Understanding its Global Impact. Prahran Australia. Tilde University Press. Chapters 5 & 6.
The Executive Leader
This module examines some of the theories and the more important principles, traits and qualities of leadership, with a particular emphasis on their relevance, value and importance in the contemporary environment. The intent of the module is to relate the theories, principles, traits and qualities of leadership to the reality of being an executive leader and to cause students to analyse:
• what makes an effective executive leader in a contemporary police environment?
• what are the essential traits of a leader as opposed to an effective executive manager?
• what is the role of the executive leader in a policing or corporate environment?
As a future executive leader you will need to consider questions like:
1. Is it practical and possible for personnel to be continually allowed to occupy positions within an organisation whilst underperforming?
2. Are high performers truly valued within policing, and if not, how can such performance be rewarded other than by the traditional promotion?
3. To what extent can the measures and leadership practices adopted by leading industries be utilised in policing and are there lessons to be learnt by CEOs in the private sector?
4. Could some of these strategies be adopted to improve long range planning and the development of real accountability for individuals rather than a rigid, disempowering chain of command which largely removes the option of individual decision making and the opportunity to identify poor or good performance?
Of course you will not have all the answers at the moment, but you are encouraged to think on this level as you work through this subject.
Hughes, Ginnett & Curphy (2002), in introducing their chapter on “Leadership is Everyone’s Business” refer to the 1972 air crash in the Andes Mountains in which a plane carrying 40 passengers crashed into a snow covered mountain killing 12 people. Their summary of the incident considers the leadership roles played by the surviving 28 passengers, many of whom were critically injured, and the decisions made – and by whom – in the battle for survival. The full story of the eventual survival of the last remaining 14 passengers is captured dramatically by Piers Paul Read in his 1974 book ‘Alive’ but, from a leadership perspective, the story illustrates the complexity of leadership, the fact that different people lead best in different situations and the value of the environment in which informal leaders have an opportunity to emerge.
Hughes, R. L., Ginnett, R. C., & Curphy, C. J. (1993). Leadership is everyone’s business. In Leadership: Enhancing the lessons of experience (2nd ed.,
pp. 3-29). Chicago: Irwin-Times, Mirror Higher Education Group.
In the words of former AFP Commissioner Mick Palmer “Like many other people who find themselves in a position of leadership without too much preparation, I found that when I first became a Police Commissioner that I had an incomplete understanding of the dimensions of the position to which I had just been appointed and of the nature and extent of the responsibilities that would be ‘non-negotiabley’ mine. Also, like most long servicing police practitioners, I had lived for many years in an hierarchical work environment where the most senior ranked person was (and was expected to be) the leader, regardless of the situation. Situational leadership as described in ’Leadership: is everyone’s business’, was not something to which I had given much thought. I was soon to recognise its importance in executive leadership terms.
In particular I quickly realised that I had no real appreciation of the complexity and diversity of a leader’s role or the relevance and importance of effective executive leadership to overall organisational reputation and performance. The essentially ranked based nature of leadership within a police organisation had allowed me to develop a degree of self reliance, trust in my own judgment and decisiveness. It had, however, done little to hone my understanding of the relevance and importance of reliance and trust in others to the capacity to perform as an effective executive leader.
I doubt that prior to my appointment I would have properly appreciated the importance and value of the lessons learnt from situation, such as the 1972 Andes air crash. In my personal situation, the reality was that:
• I found out after I was appointed Commissioner what many of the functions and responsibilities of the position were and, indeed, whether or not I had the necessary skills and experience to perform or exercise them;
• the Government which appointed me could not have known, at the time of my appointment, whether or not I could effectively perform at that level; and
• I had to embark on an aggressive self development and awareness program to ensure I came to know very quickly what I did not know – and how best to learn it.
Whilst not attempting to exhaustively canvas the various approaches to leadership, the readings in this topic examine the major contemporary theories of leadership, including both contingency theories and those frequently referred to as more ’applied’ views of leadership. In particular, some of the readings will link these theories to the actual practice of leading an organisation, explore the relationship between leadership style and situation, emphasise the importance and adaptability and values in leadership and provide some insights into the behaviours and modus operandi of individual leaders. It is important though, to appreciate that executive leadership is not the sole province of a CEO or police chief. The principles apply much more broadly and the more quickly they are understood and practised during the ’management journey’, the more effective it is likely that performance will be. My experience, mentioned above, following my appointment as Commissioner, is not uncommon amongst police leaders. Similar comments have been made by many others. The reality is, however, that my lack of understanding of the ’Commissioner’s role’ and the dynamics that surround leadership of a public organisation, had adversely impacted upon my previous ability to support my predecessor or to properly represent the interests of my organisation. Had I gained a better appreciation of this environment whilst a more junior manager I would have been much better placed, as a middle manager, to positively ’manage upwards’ and to contribute to organisational performance, reputation and relationships.” – Mick Palmer (2005).
Leadership is often described as an art and compared to the science of management, although there has been a long search to establish the exact meaning of the two words.
Contemporary writers favour the concept of transformational leadership over other models. Do you feel this is because the components of transformational leadership meet the needs of today, or are they actually evident in the other theories over time? Dalglish and Miller (2010), one of your prescribed texts, devote a whole chapter to ‘charismatic and transformational leadership theory’ for this reason. However, they say in chapter 5: ‘Some leadership theories and models are considered to be classics. The fact that they have remained intact over a long period and are still being used is testament to their continued relevance’. Read chapters 5 and 6 of Dalglish in the context of your experience and see if you agree that transformational leadership has a place in contemporary policing organisations. Whilst police structures, including promotional, reporting and operational arrangements have undergone extensive reform in more recent years, authority levels are still largely linked to rank and most police agencies still organise positions and functions around these models.
When you have completed the readings of Dalglish and Miller (2010) chapters 5 and 6, ask yourself if management and leadership in policing organisations complies with contemporary theories in those two areas. Is it appropriate and relevant to retain what is essentially a ‘command and control’ hierarchical arrangement in most policing organisations or would a ‘flatter’ organisation be more appropriate with operational ‘posts’ rather than ‘ranks’? Take into account in your thinking the different ‘organogram’ models of policing organisations such as state police agencies and federal agencies.
Dalglish and Miller (2010), chapters 5 and 6, provide a very good overview of many contemporary theories that will assist you in your first paper so please take the time to ensure you understand their contents. Next read chapter 1 of the prescribed text by Howell and Costly (2006) in order to further develop your understanding of leadership concepts and issues. Compare this chapter with the Dalglish and Miller (2010) chapters and ensure that you acquaint yourself with all contemporary leadership theories.
Complete the leadership self assessment exercise on page 9 of prescribed text: Howell & Costly, (2006). Understanding behaviours of effective leadership. Look at the results on page 17 to evaluate your answers – this exercise should be of assistance to you in your personal assessment of your own leadership traits as well as those you study and write about during this subject. Now read chapter 2 of the same prescribed text. This chapter will introduce a variety of leadership styles. Do you consider that these are truly ‘new’ or ‘emergent’ leadership behaviour or merely new ‘labels’? Further detail and description of each ‘behaviour’ are outlined in chapters 4 to 11 and you may want to read in greater depth to assist you in your full understanding of the impact each leadership behaviour can have.
Prescribed Text: Howell, J. P., & Costly, D. L. (2006). Understanding behaviours of effective leadership (2nd ed., chap. 1 & 2). New Jersey: Pearson Education.
Prescribed Text: Dalglish, C. & Miller, P. (2010) Leadership: Understanding its Global Impact. Prahran Australia. Tilde University Press. Chapter 5 – Theories of Leadership (pp 89 – 131)
Prescribed Text: Dalglish, C. & Miller, P. (2010) Leadership: Understanding its Global Impact. Prahran Australia. Tilde University Press. Chapter 6 – Charismatic and transformational leadership (pp 132 – 148)
The Executive Leader
Personality traits and strengths
Avril Henry, a well known motivational speaker in the area of modern leadership, identified that little research had been undertaken within Australia to identify the personality traits and strengths of Australian leaders. Henry, (2005) interviewed a wide range of leaders from a variety of backgrounds including leading CEOs, sporting personalities and public sector leaders. Reading 1.1 is the summary of the interviews and the conclusions reached by Henry. The interviews support a claim that there is little difference in the expectations and performance of Australians when compared to the contemporary literature, but the conclusions further confirm the work of other authors in this topic.
Henry, A. (2005). Components of effective leadership in Australia. In Leadership revelations, an Australian perspective: Reflections from outstanding leaders (pp. 157-168). Sydney: CCH Australia Limited.
Consider the conclusions reached by Henry, (2005) and reflect on the personality traits and strengths considered important among Australian leaders. Develop a table that will allow you to list the 5 key factors and compare them against other readings in this subject. (Your table will need to have 6 columns and 5 rows as well as a header row.)
Now we will take a closer look at a key Australian leader, General Peter Cosgrove. This will allow us to build on Henry’s 2005 observations and assist you in gaining insight from the experience of others.
Cosgrove, General P. (2002, December). Key features of being an effective leader in times of adversity. Platypus Magazine, 77, 39-43.
In this reading, General Peter Cosgrove (2002) reiterates the message of the importance of integrity that he mentions in his interview with Henry. Cosgrove argues that the principle leadership trait is to engage your staff and ensure that they have confidence in your integrity, even if they do not necessarily agree with every decision you make if they believe in you as a ‘honest and ethical’ leader, then they will have respect for you and will perform well.
The notion of “integrity” being fundamental to leadership is not uncommon. What is your view on this? Consider people that you believe are good leaders; is integrity part of your assessment? Would you follow someone you didn’t trust? Now, look at the table you created in the previous activity and prioritise the values and strengths you have listed.
As you will find when you read the interviews conducted by Kelly 2005, there are differing views on the importance of integrity as a component of leadership.
In Reading 1.3 Ronald Heifetz 2000 presents a new theory of leadership for both public and private leaders in tackling complex contemporary problems. Central to his theory is the distinction between routine technical problems, which can be solved through expertise, and adaptive problems, such as crime, poverty, and educational reform, which require innovative approaches, including consideration of values. Four major strategies of leadership are identified: to approach problems as adaptive challenges by diagnosing the situation in light of the values involved and avoiding authoritative solutions, to regulate the level of stress caused by confronting issues, and to shift responsibility for problems from the leader to all the primary stakeholders. For this topic you will need to read pages 11 to 66 (contained in the readings), but as this is a recommended text it would be worthwhile borrowing the entire book as it is relevant to all topics.
Heifetz, R. A. (2000). Chapter 1, Values in leadership & Chapter 2, To lead or mislead. In Leadership without easy answers (Chap. 1 & 2., pp. 13-48). Cambridge Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press
The Executive Leader
Motivating people to follow
Across human history people have been motivated to follow leaders in the name of allegiance to “king and country”, “political persuasion” or “religion”. Willingness to sacrifice and die for a cause may occasionally be more pragmatic than philosophical. Even in recent times conscription suggests a slight reluctance. Nevertheless the great leaders of the ages on the battlefield itself could motivate incredible feats of bravery and selflessness such as the stirring address by William Wallace (Braveheart) to the Scottish clans as they faced an overwhelming English force.
The leaders of today cannot call on allegiance to royalty or the threat of tyrannical rule to motivate staff, and poor performance rarely evokes physical rebuke these days. In fact, the industrial environment of today requires the modern executive leader to be far more discerning and considerate in motivating followers.
In Reading 1.4 Kelly, (2004) interviews a number of CEOs and CEO advisors in an attempt to identify three of the key strategies required for leadership success in the corporate world. The findings place some responsibility on the individuals within the organization (employees) and emphasise that it is necessary to deal with underperformance in a very direct manner. The subjects of this research imply that lack of leadership in this area leads to poor performance becoming acceptable.
Howell & Costley (2006) describe a whole range of more contemporary thinking about leadership styles in Part II of the set text. Consider the leadership behaviours here against those studied earlier in this topic.
Kelly, J. (2004). Corporate leadership reflections of CEO and CEO advisor. Long Range Planning, 37, 389-398.
Now contrast this approach to that usually adopted in the policing environment. In your experience do you think it is in fact possible to adopt such strategies in the current industrial climate? If not, should police CEOs be fighting for the rights to have such autonomy to reward good performance and terminate staff who fail to meet required performance standards?
If you can, obtain a copy of the recommended reading by Edelbacher, M. Delip K.D. Marenin, O (2007) Comparative Problems in Policing: Interviews with Nineteen Police Leaders from Different Nations. This book includes interviews from a number or European and Australian Police Leaders and is a very good comparative text. This text may also be a useful reference for your assignments.
List Kelly, (2004) on your Leadership table and list the 3 key strategies as behavioural traits of good leaders
Golding, B. & Savage, S. P. (2008) is taken from ‘Leadership and Performance Management’ in Newburn, T (2008) Handbook of Policing (2nd ed.) which is the set text for this subject. This book is also a set text in some of the previous subjects in this award course and may well already be available to you. The Handbook of Policing (2nd edition) is divided into four major sections. The first considers policing in its comparative and historical context. The second the context in which policing takes place, including the relationship of policing to other forms of security provision and private policing. The third section looks at how the police operate, with chapters on the analysis and investigation of crime, approaches to crime prevention, community safety, drugs, terrorism and organised crime, and the final section looks at a range of key issues and debates in contemporary policing, ranging from race and gender to ethics and restorative justice.
Many of the readings relate to current practice in operational policing but give ideas in relation to the future direction of Policing which is discussed further in Topic 3. Golding, B. & Savage, S. P. (2008) take a look at the comparisons of true leadership as compared with the measurement of performance management and summarizes the findings of many of the previous readings in this chapter.
Prescribed text: Golding, B. & Savage, S. P. (2008). Leadership and performance management. In T. Newburn (Ed.), Handbook of policing (2nd ed.). Devon: Willan Publishing. Chapter 27, pp 725-759.
The Executive Leader
Views on police leadership
Police leadership presents its own unique challenges. So far we have examined some fundamental components of leadership that could arguably apply from a battlefield to a table tennis team. Now we will turn to our set text to examine some views on police specific leadership. In the set text for this subject, whilst being a UK text, the authors are drawn from a variety of highly recognised practitioners and academics in policing. The text presents a variety of views on police leadership and the demands facing police leaders in the future. It will be worth your while reading the entire text; however certain chapters have been identified as being particularly relevant to this subject. This particular chapter discusses the three types of leadership identified by the author Heffernan, WC (2002). These differ somewhat from those already discussed in the earlier reading by Kelly, J (2004).
Prescribed text: Heffernan, W. C. (2002). Three types of leadership. In R. Adlam & P. Villiers (Eds.), Leadership in the 21st Century. UK: Waterside Press.
Another author from our set text is Alderson, J (2002) who takes a slightly different perspective looking towards the future of policing. Alderson, J (2002) takes the argument to a different level and searches for the principles required for police leaders in the 21st Century, Again it is interesting to note the similarities and differences between the much more ‘cut throat’ approach in the private sector as identified by Kelly, J (2004). Could these differences be a result of a protective police culture or the fact that only in recent times has the performance of the police executive been under scrutiny, similar to that of a Board of Management or shareholders?
Prescribed text: Alderson, J. (2002). Police leadership: A search for principles. In R. Adlam & P. Villiers (Eds.), Leadership in the 21st Century. UK: Waterside Press
After reading Heffernan, W.C. (2002), you should title, then complete the next 3 columns of your table with the 5 key components of the 3 types of leadership presented. Then list the 5 major principles listed by Alderson, J 2002. By now your comparative table is developing some specific themes
The last column is for your 5 components. You will have thought a lot about what makes an effective executive leader. Take the time now to write down what you consider to be the 5 fundamental traits and strengths of leadership. Save the table as you may use it in topic 4.
The Executive Leader
Institutional memory in police leadership
This reading by Benoit Dupont (2003) is a brief paper he developed whilst working for this University and the Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.
The inspiration for the paper was drawn from the need to capture the Institutional Memory of the previous Police Commissioners from various states around Australia. The paper is a first draft comparison of a range of interviews which were conducted some years earlier and had been archived within the Institute of Criminology. The paper is available on the following web site, which, for those of you who are not already aware, is a good source of contemporary thinking in policing and law enforcement:
Dupont, B. (2003). Preserving institutional memory in Australian police services. In Australian Institute of Criminology, Trends and issues in crime and criminal justice. Canberra. Retrieved September 16, 2011
Dupont (2003) captured a range of opinions and decision making processes which, although now somewhat dated, are an accurate record of the thinking at the time of the interviews. It is interesting to compare these interviews with those conducted with more recent Commissioners as discussed within this subject (see Readings 2.2 and 2.3 and the CD Rom). What value would you place on this institutional memory? Are the lessons of yesterday relevant to future Policing leaders? Topic 2 will assist you in your consideration of these questions.
Separation of powers – A Leadership Dilemma?
Topic 2 looks in depth at the political interface of between policing and the government. However as we have considered the notion of integrity as a fundamental component of leadership, it is worth considering the leadership dilemma faced by the policing executive leader when faced by the political reality associated with such high office.
“Police leaders should have the courage to be completely autonomous of government
Do you agree or disagree with this? Perhaps you consider the more astute leader to be politically correct and follow their political masters at all times. What are the dangers of this? List 5 arguments for each position to assist your thinking on this crucial issue. Post your arguments on the GPM506 Forum and exchange thoughts with your fellow students.
The Executive Leader
Throughout this topic, you have been asked a range of questions which have been designed to stimulate a variety of ideas and concepts in relation to the definition of leadership, contemporary leadership styles and the current state of police executive leadership. Considering these questions will assist you in the development of your assignment for this topic. If you have completed the activities along the way you will now have a comparative matrix of key leadership traits and strengths including your own list. This will assist you as you now begin your first assignment in this subject.
Assignment 1 is for you to choose two chief executive officers of your choice (one being from a law enforcement background) and compare and contrast their leadership styles. Please refer carefully to the assessment item details in the course outline and then complete assignment 1.
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