Natural Selection and Speciation Learning ModuleInstructions: Watch the two videos Mechanisms of Evolution and Speciation. Then answer the questions and turn in when you come for your exam on Thursday, February 13, 2013. This assignment is worth 30 points.Mechanisms of Evolution: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6w16-jRQGKw&feature=youtu.beAllopatric Speciation: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PKb8Yi5xzhEEvolution through Natural SelectionThe textbook outlines 3 premises (p46) that are necessary for natural selection to occur: 1) Organisms face a constant struggle to survive and reproduce, 2) Organisms tend to produce more offspring than can survive, 3) individuals of a species vary in their characteristics.1. Using what you learned from the Mechanisms of Evolution animation, choose one of the three requirements above and explain how the beetle population met that requirement.2. From the following list select only those where evolution by natural selection is likely to occur:a. Insecticide is applied to a population of mosquitoes, most of which are initially killed upon exposure to the chemical; but a few survive and reproduce. b. A man spends many hours in the gym exercising and is able to increase his body weight, muscle mass, and strength, which makes him more attractive to the opposite sex. c. Some male individuals in a population of kangaroos are born with larger front paws and longer forearms. This gives them an advantage when boxing other males to compete with them for mating with females. d. Toxic levels of heavy metals are dumped as waste from coal mines. Initially, no plants will grow on the waste dump; but eventually some grasses begin to colonize the dump sites and reproduce. e. A pregnant woman spends too much time in the sun and suffers severe sunburn. The sunlight causes genetic changes to the DNA in her skin. f. A small group of beetle-eating birds is blown to an island in the ocean by a hurricane. The new environment lacks the beetles they normally eat but has various types of hard-shelled nuts. Some of the birds have larger, more pointed beaks and are able to crack the nuts open. 3. From Question #2 above, choose a situation where you DIDN?T feel evolution by natural selection was likely to occur and explain your reasoning.Allopatric Speciation4. Case study: The apple maggot fly (Rhagoletis pomonella) can use hawthorn berries or apples as hosts. If one population of apple maggot flies breeds and lives on hawthorn berries for many years, and another population breeds and lives on apples for many years, have they diverged into separate species? To answer this question, use the information from the case study and propose an experiment to test whether these two populations are separate species.5. Do a little research on the Abert and Kaibab Squirrels. Explain why these squirrels are a perfect example of allopatric speciation?
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