ONLY DO PART 2 (C)
i request the writer must have a qualification of management and marketing
Organisational change involves the managerial responsibility to modify a situation “ that is, to change people, tasks, structure and/or technology (Wood et al 2006, p 497). Wood et al (2006) also explain that organisational change refers to organisation-wide change rather than small changes such as adding a new person or making minor modifications to a process.
The purpose of this essay is to explain the change process and understand resistance to change; however we first need to understand the types of change. According to Stone (2005) there are two types of change; radical change and incremental change. Radical change is something that produces a fundamental change in the organisation. Incremental change involves gradual or small-step modifications to the organisation s existing strategies, structure, systems, culture and people. The Clinton case study was a radical change, where such change results in a major make-over of the organisation and/or of its component systems (Wood et al 2006, p 490).
Change can either be planned or unplanned. Planned change is a systematic response to an identified gap between desired and actual performance, whilst unplanned change is caused by some spontaneous or ad hoc event (Stone, 2005). Planned change is usually introduced due to a performance gap, which is defined as the discrepancy between an actual and a desired state of affairs (Wood et al 2006).
Kurt Lewin, a social psychologist widely accepted as the first significant writer on planned organisational change, developed a model of change in the 1940 s that could be used to guide organisations from one stable state to the next (Graetz et al 2006). Lewin s change model includes three phases and managers using Lewin s ideas will be sensitive to the need to ensure that any change effort properly addresses each of these three phases of change.
Graetz et al (2006) explain the three phases as below:
1) Unfreezing. This step requires a reduction in the fields forces that maintain an existing organisational culture and method of operation. Unfreezing often involves breaking psychological attachment to the past by using information that demonstrates the existence of problems.
2) Moving. This step entails the creation of cognitive recognition in the workforce of the need for change, and the establishment of new norms of behaviour around a particular set of new structures and processes.
3) Refreezing. As soon as new values, structures and processes have been installed, cultural reinforcement is necessary to stabilise the system or restore equilibrium.
Interestingly, the most common criticism of this model is that of the third step “ refreezing “ no longer applies to many organisations (Graetz et al 2006). This is because organisations are now encouraged to thrive on chaos and change “ therefore the period of time between phases of planned change has dwindled to zero. Graetz et al (2006) asks us the following question: how can refreezing occur when a new phase of change is introduced before the last phase of movement is fully accomplished. The below Figure 1 shows a visual of Lewin s Change Model.
Figure 1: Lewin s Change Model (Mind Tools, )
b) Specify which of the three change steps President Clinton initially handled very poorly based on the scenario (aprox 1,000 words)
Notes for next sections:
– Go into more details about how the case study was a radical change
– Explain that Clinton s change was unplanned, lining it to Lewin s theory. Also explain what effect this had on the military
– Discuss change agent and how there wasn t one in the case study. One of the reasons why there was so much resistance to change
– Link to page 144 of text errors managers make when leading change
Part 2 “ Managing resistance to change:
c) Identify the approaches that can be used to manage resistance to change (aprox 1,000 words)