Geography Essay

1.Lines of latitude
A. converge at the poles
B. are measured north or south of the prime meridian
C. are parallel to each other
D. all the above

2. If you were half way between the equator and the north pole and one quarter of the way around the earth west of the prime meridian you will be at:
A. 45 N; 90 W
B. 45 N; 180 W
C. 45 N; 90 E
D. 45 N; 180 E
3. Which of the following components makes up most of the Earth?s atmosphere?
A. carbon dioxide

B. nitrogen
C. oxygen
D. methane

4. What is the name of the layer of the atmosphere that helps to shield the Earth?s surface from harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation (HINT: the layer is home to the ozone layer)?

5. An inversion is where:
A. is where temperatures stay the same with increasing altitude.
B. is where temperatures decrease with increasing altitude.
C. is where temperatures increase with increasing altitude.

D. is where temperatures increase with decreasing altitude.

6. When the earth is closest to the sun, we call it _____________, and it happens around ___________ every year.
A. Perihelion, July 3
B. Aphelion, August 3
C. Perihelion, March 21
D. Perihelion, Jan 3

7. The hotter the emitting body
A. the shorter the wavelength of maximum emission
B. the longer the wavelength of maximum emission
C. the less energy it will emit
D. the more latent heat it will store

8. The coldest temperature over the course of the day normally occurs
A. at midnight
B. at sunset
C. at 8:00 pm
D. just after sunrise

9. Which of the following air masses is the coldest during the winter?
A. cP
B. mT
C. mP
D. they are all equally cold during the winter but not during the summer

10. Which of the following is not a model?
A. A globe
B. A physical equation
C. A weather forecasting program
D. All the above are models
11. The passage of shortwave and longwave energy through the atmosphere or water is an example of:
A. Refraction
B. Transmission
C. Absorption

D. Insolation

12. The albedo of a surface is a measure of which of the following processes?
A. Reflection
B. Transmission
C. Scattering

D. Solar radiation receipt

13. The sky is blue because
A. Gasses in the atmosphere scatter blue light well.
B. Light reflects off of the oceans.
C. Dust in the atmosphere changes the black color of space to sky blue.

D. Light from the Sun is mainly blue.

14. The principal controls and influences of temperature patterns include
A. Latitude, altitude, land-water heating differences, cloud cover, ocean currents, and surface conditions.
B. Land-water heating differences only.

C. ?Earth’s tilt, rotation, revolution, and sphericity.
D. Specific heat only.

15. If the temperature at the surface of Earth (at sea level) is 40?C, what is the temperature at 2000 m if the normal lapse rate is 6.4?C/1000 m?
A. 52.8?C
B. 27.2?C
C. 46.4?C
D. 33.6?C
16. Explain how the greenhouse effect works to regulate the earth’s temperature. Include details about radiation type, and use appropriate terminology (transmission, absorption, shortwave, longwave radiation) when applicable [Chapter 3].

17. Briefly describe how the vertical rays of the sun at noon change throughout the year at the following locations [Chapter 2]:
The equator
The Tropic of Cancer
45? N
18. ?Give an example of an open system. Identify the inputs and outputs of the system. Do closed systems exist in nature? Why or why not? [Chapter 1]

19. Give an example of 1) a positive feedback, 2) a negative feedback [Chapter 1].

20. Do humans contribute to global warming? If yes, then how do humans contribute to global warming? If no, then explain in detail what the source of increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere? since 1958 is [Chapters 2, 3, 4].

21. Describe the seasonal pressure patterns that produce the Asian monsoonal wind and precipitation patterns. Contrast January and July conditions [Chapter 6].

22. Relate the jet-stream phenomenon to general upper-air circulation. How is the presence of this circulation related to airline schedules for the trip from New York to San Francisco and for the return trip to New York [Chapter 6]?

23. Describe the effect of the Coriolis force. Explain how it apparently deflects atmospheric and oceanic circulations [Chapter 6].

24. Explain the effect of altitude/elevation on air temperature. Why is air at higher altitude/elevation lower in temperature? Why does it feel cooler standing in shadows at higher elevation than at lower elevation [Chapter 5]?

25. What is the thermal equator? Describe its location in January and in July. Explain why it shifts position annually [Chapter 5].

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