Feedback Summary and Revised Problem Statements
>This assignment must have two sections in the same document: one is your revised problem statements and the other is the feedback summary and changes addressed.
***Revised problem statements***
>Use facilitator and peer feedback to develop the revisions.
>Revise the problem statements. Start each revised statement on a new page. Create a separate reference list for each revised statement, and include the related reference list immediately below the appropriate revised problem statement on the same page.
>Verify that each revised problem statement is aligned with the University of Phoenix Material: Dissertation Criteria & Rating Scale â€“ Concept Paper tab.
>Summarize facilitator and peer comments, questions, and suggestions.
>Describe how you addressed each comment, question, or suggestion. Be as detailed as necessary; no word count limit.
>Submit both your revised problem statements and the feedback summary in one MicrosoftÂ® Word document.
>Submit a separate Certificate of Originality document.
Qualitative Problem- Peer Review
The problem of what will be researched was not clearly identified. In the problem statement you are to convince your audiences that the problem is real and worth having you investigate. According to the checklist provided in regards to formulating problem statements all of the questions were not answered.
I did not understand what the problem within a focused group of individuals was, why the problem should be addressed and who benefits from your findings. The syllabus suggest the problem statements should be Â½ – Â¾ of a page in length. You should consider condensing your information to meet the page length criteria.
After reading the material I was unsure of what method you would be using for research. The problem did not lead to which research method you would use.
You gave great details on Dumping Syndrome, its causes, and the symptoms. The information provided was very informative. The sources used were appropriate.
You should review the syllabus and Sample Qualitative and Quantitative Problem Statements provided by the instructor. The sample gives a checklist of what should be included in the problem statement. It also gives a 2 paragraph example of how the problem statement should be stated.
Quantitative Problem- Peer Review
The problem of childhood obesity was clearly stated. You provided great information and used your sources accordingly. Your information was well organized.
Remove the summary of the history and conclusion. Delete each titled section because the problem statement is not divided. Combine the information in each section as they answer the questions to the problem statement checklist that was provided in class. Review recommendations from qualitative peer review.
First, neither of these problem statements are about problems that you would research. You tell me about existing problems and cite some previous research, but nothing here leads to a new study in either case.
Second, your doctoral program is rooted in leadership. Every dissertation must have an aspect of leadership; that is, your work must advance the field of leadership in some manner. I donâ€™t find that anywhere.
Third, in neither case do you present any sort of research methodology or introduce a group of subjects who would become a part of the study. In other words, your work is very generic and it does not lead to a specific problem to be studied. For example, other than the heading about a hypothesis, in neither case could I even tell what would make either one a qualitative versus a quantitative study.
The grammar and APA formatting is fine, save for the incomplete entries in both reference lists. Also, some of your sources are quite old. In your dissertation, 85% of your sources must be within the last five years (dated from when you submit your work to the dean for review).
Score for this initial effort = 70%
ASSIGNMENT WAS REVIEWED
Draft Problem Statements
Submit to your instructor a draft of two problem statementsâ€”one qualitative and one quantitative (in that specific order)â€”that address two different current situations, issues, or observations in your field of study or discipline. Prepare just one document to submit for grading, and prepare the two problem statements on separate pages within that same document
Severity Of Dumping Syndrome and Weight Regain After Roux-En-Y Surgery
The Roux-en-Y surgery is a medical procedure that is used to treat stomach cancer through partial or complete reconstruction of the gastrectomy; bile duct that may be resulting from a common bile duct tumor; and obesity that may be resulting from type 2 diabetes. The Roux-en-Y surgery is named after the first medical personnel who conducted the procedure, Cesar Roux. The procedure involves anastomosis that resembles a letter Y, hence the name Roux-en-Y. The transverse colon is removed to expose the Roux-en-Y, whereby the small bowelâ€™s limbs resembles a proximal segment with distal small bowel joining them to form a Y like intersection of the anastomosis.
The procedure follows a process of removal of some part of the stomach depending on the type of illness or disease one is treating. For cancerous patients, the cancer lumps and the associated sector are surgically removed. For obesity, parts of the large and small intestines are removed as a way of reducing the rate of absorption of food particles and sugar. For patients suffering from Microscopic bile duct hepatic disease, the duct or part of it is removed to reduce the effects of the bile accumulation in the systems (Mallory, Macgregor & Rand, 1996).
Dumping syndrome is a collection of symptoms that are experienced by a patient who have gone through the Roux-en-Y surgery involving the removal of a part of the stomach. The symptoms are caused by the changes in physiology and anatomy of the stomach. Patients who have undergone this procedure and are associated with malnutrition and poor living standards mostly experience severity of dumping syndrome. The severity of dumping syndrome is not determined by the above elements, but it is directly associated with the physiological and psychosocial issues like the amount and type of food entering the small intestines, as well as the general standards of living (Bufler, Ehringhaus & Koletzko, 2001).
Symptoms and causes of Severity of Dumping Syndrome
Dumping syndrome is associated with two types of symptoms: early and late dumping symptoms. The early dumping symptoms are associated with the physiological aspects in which are experienced a short while after a patient has ingested food. When the small intestines are suddenly filled with food particles, and anatomical change takes place where they are stretched, therefore building up high blood flow that affects the general blood pressure. Starting with the early symptoms of the dumping syndrome, food particles and fluids that are directly ingested to the small intestines cause a rapid change in the flow of blood, blood pressure drops, and flow of blood increases inside the intestines. In general, the high blood flow to the intestines takes up the blood share of other parts of the body like the brain, therefore leading to a series of symptoms associated with the drifting blood flow (Jordan, Overton & De Bakey, 1957).
When the blood flow is increased in the small intestines, blood pressure in the intestines and the body in general experiences a drop. The drop of the blood pressure affects other parts of the body especially the brain; once the brain has been deprived of enough blood flow and oxygen, a patient experiences faintness and weakness of the body. The deprivation of enough blood to the brain means a reduced neural activity and slow response to the effects of little oxygen.
Mechanism responsible for Early and Late Dumping
After the Roux-en-Y surgery, the period of time that a patient takes before he/she take his/her first meal determines the type of dumping. However, whether late or early dumping, the sugar content of the food eaten predicts the severity of the symptoms. Meals with high sugar content result into two outcomes of accelerated gastric emptying, responsible for early dumping; and reduced gastric contractility and accommodation, responsible for late dumping. For the early dumping, accelerated gastric emptying results to hyperosmolar chime jejunum, irregular release of gut hormones, and rapid absorption of glucose from the intestines.
Bufler, P., Ehringhaus, C., Koletzko, S. (2001). Dumping syndrome: a common problem following Nissen fundoplication in young children. Pediatr Surg Int, 17. . Jordan, G., Overton, C., De Bakey, E. (1957). The postgastrectomy syndrome: studies on pathogenesis. Ann Surg, 145.
Mallory, G., Macgregor, A., Rand, S. (1996). The Influence of Dumping on Weight Loss After Gastric Restrictive Surgery for Morbid Obesity. ObesSurg.
QUANTITATIVE PROBLEM IN HEALTHCARE
Obesity can be defined as an excess of body fat. Obesity among the children population has in the recent past reached tragic levels in the developed nations. About 25% of the children in the US are reported to be overweight while another 11% are obese (Dehghan, 2005). In a general sense, obesity has been taunted as one of the major diseases that poses the greatest threat among the American population. This trend has been traced down to the eating habits of the younger generation specifically children between 6 to 12 years. Much has been said about obesity but the resolve to finish off the menace caused by this body condition seems to be clearly lacking. Obesity in its basic sense is a condition that leads to a person being overweight at relatively smaller ages.
Summary of the History of the Topic
My choice of the topic was greatly influenced by the high prevalence rates witnessed among the younger generation in the American population. As such, I deemed it fit to address this killer issue albeit against a backdrop of increased cases of obesity as well as chronic diseases infection. In view of the fact that a staggering 70 per cent of overweight teenagers are at a higher risk of becoming obese, it is particularly important that this condition be checked. It is important to note that the occurrence of obesity in an individual increases the risk of contracting equally deadly diseases such as diabetes, asthma, arthritis and body conditions such as high blood pressure and poor health status. The two conditions of being overweight and obese among children are known to have huge impacts on both their physical and psychological health. The causative agents of obesity are believed to be multiple: environmental factors, preference in the lifestyles including eating habits and lastly, the cultural environment play important role in the increased obesity prevalence in the world. Overweight and obesity could also be as a result of increased caloric and fat intake (Ruhm, 2007).
Health Consequences of Obesity
Apart from the apparent difficulty in physical action in the affected person, other complications may result from an obese condition. They are numerous and could include: coronary heart diseases, stroke, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, various types of cancers, mental health conditions, complications in the reproductive health sector such as infertility, sleep apnea, problems in the respiratory systems and lastly diseases that attack the liver and the gall bladder.
Summary of the Hypothesis To be Tested
It is based on the analysis of how instances of obesity and overweight reflect to the possibilities of chronic disorders. In short, the paper tends to explore the relationship that exists between the prevalence rates of obesity or overweight and chronic diseases. It is particularly important to understand the relationship that exists between these two conditions. As it is evident chronic disorders are developments realized in obese conditions or cases of overweight and as such exhibit similar prevalence rates.
Summary of the Latest Research that has been carried Out
The widespread prevalence rates of these two conditions have led the medical practitioners to carry an extensive research into a host of components that in one way or another could have a bearing to the diseases. The empirical testing carried out in the wake of increased infection rates has acted to pint out clearly certain facts that need to be checked out if any improvements in as far as the war to minimize obesity rates is concerned.
Higher prevalence rates of obesity and overweight among the young population directly reflect the levels of prevalence of chronic diseases that would be present as well. The fight against obesity, overweight and chronic disorders that may manifest later should be a resolve set by each and every one so as to help in keeping the prevalence rates at very low points. The fight against obesity should act as a wakeup call to the responsible persons (parents in this case) to bring up their children in the best possible ways so as to avoid any complications in the future.
Dehghan M., Noori A.-D. & Merchant A. T. (2005). Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention. Nutrition Journal.
Ruhm C. J. (June 2007). Current and Future Prevalence of Obesity and Severe Obesity in the United States: NBER Working Paper No. 13181.
Problem Statement Checklist
The following is a checklist to guide development of a problem statement.
1. What is the problem?
Describe aspects of a situation that need improvement. What is happening that should not be happening, or what is not happening that should be happening? What is the evidence of the problem? When composing the problem statement, researchers should show the problem. That is, researchers must avoid simply explaining the problem but, rather, should describe the problem by detailing its effects and evidence, supported by sources.
2. What ill effects does this problem create within society and/or its subsets?
Determining these effects will aid in researching and composing the background section.
3. Whereâ€”professions, subspecialtiesâ€”is the problem found? Who would request a study of the problem?
Determining who or what the problem influences will aid in researching and composing the literature review.
4. Editors of which journal or journals would be interested in publishing this study?
Finding an opportunity for publication will aid in researching and composing the literature review.
5. What topics, subjects, or issuesare involved (such as stock market, drugs, violence, language development, assessment, euthanasia, and so forth)?
Defining all related issues will aid in researching the literature review.
6. What has already been done about the problem? What has not been done?
Examining the history of the problem will aid in researching the literature review.
7. What harm could be done if this study was NOT conducted?
Determining potential outcomes will help define the purpose and significance.
8. Why are you interested in this problem? Why would someone else be interested in this problem?
Determining interest will aid in describing the studyâ€™s significance.
9. Who is affected? What group would care about this problem?
Determining the affected parties will help define the sample, population, and significance.
10. What part of the problem can the results of this study help to solve?
Will the findings assist others in making wiser choices? Will the results help to debunk a myth? Understanding how the study findings may potentially address a problem will help define the studyâ€™s purpose and significance.
11. What value will the research create?
Will the findings clarify an ambiguous point or theory? Will the study focus on a new aspect of a problem? Will the results aid in an important decision-making process? Determining the potential value of a study will help define its purpose and significance.
12. What needs to be done to investigate the problem?
Which verb best describes the focus of the proposed study: analyze, describe, evaluate, test, understand, determine, define, establish? Understanding the investigative approach is crucial for determining the methodology and instruments to be used.
13. How does the study pertain to the development or refinement of theory?
Understanding the potential contribution will aid in designing the theoretical framework.
14. What could result from this study?
Which verb best describes the studyâ€™s trajectory: clarify, debunk, relieve, assist, create, recommend, and so forth? Understanding potential outcomes will help with interpretation of results.
Dissertation Criteria & Rating Scale Overview (Practitioner)
The purpose of this document is to provide a practical overview of the Dissertation Criteria & Rating Scale. The document provides information on two levels of the scale: baseline information is provided for each individual tab of the Practitioner Dissertation Criteria & Rating Scale MicrosoftÂ® ExcelÂ® document (derived from the revised dissertation process), and summary detail is provided for the domains contained thereinâ€”summarized from the criteria provided within the scale.
Tab 2: Concept Paper Review Criteria
The concept paper review is a review of a basic outline of the foundations of a learnerâ€™s dissertation research. This review is conducted as an evaluative assessment for DOC/721R, the second year residency course. At this point in their respective program, learners need only develop an outline that details three elements, problem formation, contribution to knowledge, and an initial discussion of the relevant scholarship that delineates and contextualizes the proposed study, which correspond to the first three subdomains of the scale. At this stage, learners are assessed on their capability in developing a feasible and appropriate study for doctoral-level inquiry.
Criteria in this domain address the ways in which the background of the research has been articulated, how a need for inquiry has developed from this background, why this inquiry is needed, and how the researcher is proposing to undertake this inquiry. Accordingly, elements from subsequent sections of the rating scale may be present in this domain, but they should be summative, rather than repetitious, accounts.
Note. This domain also addresses the alignment of the research design to the identified question, thus the feasibility and appropriateness of the study.
Tab 3: Committee Review â€“ Literature
The learnerâ€™s dissertation committee, because of their expertise in the field of inquiry assess that the learnerâ€™s treatment of the literature is adequate to doctoral-level inquiry. At this level, the learner must have exhaustively reviewed, synthesized, and situated the literature corresponding to the studyâ€™s topic, its methodological approach, and its potential contribution to the discipline.
The domain that addresses the studyâ€™s literature review contains several elements, related to both content and form: coverage of the content literature, coverage of the methodological literature, synthesis of the literature, a treatment of the dissertationâ€™s significance in relation to the literature, and the rhetorical narrative developed via the review. To summarize, literature reviews are expected to evidence learnersâ€™ grasp of the historical and current literature related to their study, as well as the literature that describes and supports the decision to utilize their selected method of inquiry. These content elements should be synthesized into a cogent narrative that provides a comprehensive background to, argues the need for, and situates the proposed research within the discipline.
Tab 4: Quality Review â€“ Proposal
All learners in the SAS doctoral programs submit their dissertation proposals for a quality review by appointed SAS faculty. This review ensures that the learner has clarified the research questions/hypotheses he or she is using to guide the study and developed a method and approach to inquiry that appropriately responds to the problem, the question, and the literature.
Design and Logic
Criteria in this section focus on the detailed account of a proposed studyâ€™s design. Subdomains also focus on the appropriate application of a particular research tradition to the proposed area of inquiry and the comprehensive alignment of the studyâ€™s design, its intent, and its intended outcomes.
Tab 5: IRB Review
Largely because of the difficulty in assessing ethical components in proposed or completed research, application of the third page/tab of criteria is largely the purview of the Institutional Review Board (IRB). These criteria are assessed via evidence from the proposal, as well as the IRB forms that must be completed by all learners prior to data collection.
Ethics in Reporting
Criteria in this domain focus on the appropriate use and reporting of informed consent, the strategies for ensuring participant confidentiality, and the clarity, safety, and transparency of procedure in the research design and protocols.
Tab 6: Quality Review â€“ Final
The final quality review centers on the data analysis and interpretation components of the study. The review is conducted by appointed faculty and qualified external reviewers to ensure that the highest levels of intellectual rigor are maintained in the systematic process of analyzing and contextualizing data in terms of the studyâ€™s design. As such, a learner cannot defend his or her dissertation until successfully completing this quality review.
Sources of Evidence
This domainâ€™s criteria center on the description of the studyâ€™s data sources, how collection processes were engaged throughout the research, the larger context in which data collection took place, and the ways in which these collection procedures supported the research design and intent.
Measurement and Classification
The measurement and classification criteria address the presence, accuracy, and clarity of a researcherâ€™s structuring and organizing of data. Elements assessed via this criteria include coding structures, descriptive statistics, scales, data reduction techniques, and member checking regarding the coding/classifications used by the researcher.
Analysis and Interpretation
A general set of criteria are applied to all dissertations regarding data analysis and interpretation, and these criteria center on the nature of the evidence that supports any outcomes or claims, the presence of some inquiry toward disconfirming evidence, congruence with both the research questions and the outcomes suggested from the evidence, and linkages between interpretation, previous research described in the literature review, and the contributions of the present study.
Quantitative Study Analysis and Interpretation: For quantitative research, the scale enhances these criteria with additional emphases on the presence and accurate utilization/interpretation of descriptive/inferential statistics, statistical testing, and effect indices, as well as considerations of possible compromises to the studyâ€™s validity.
Qualitative Study Analysis and Interpretation: For qualitative research, the scale enhances these criteria with additional emphases on clarity/transparency of interpretation processes, warrant for claims made that are grounded in concrete examples from the data, and greater contextualization of the claims made, due to the more subjective nature of qualitative inquiry.
This domain addresses the intended scope of a studyâ€™s generalizability, the depth of the researcherâ€™s discussion of the studyâ€™s population and context, and the logic applied to any claims of generalization.
Tab 7: Editorial Review
After final approval by their chair/committee, learners are required to submit their final manuscripts to an editing service sponsored by the university. The final page/tab contains the criteria the editing service provides in this review.
Title, Abstract, and Headings
Criteria herein address the accuracy and appropriateness of the title, abstract, and headings.
These criteria assess the clarity, tone, precision, and mechanics of the writing in the dissertation.
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