Outline and guidelines.
Factors associated with boredom proneness in young adults
In this handout we are providing you with information about:
Writing the report
How to do the statistical analyses for the results
This research report is worth 35% of your total grade for this subject. The total length should be 2,750 words +10% (excluding the abstract and references). Must be APA format!
Overall, a suggested break down in words as is follows.
Abstract 150 words
Method and Results -1000 words
Discussion- 850 words
The introduction plus discussion carry a much higher weight in marks.
Notes on how to write the research report
In this research report we are considering factors associated with boredom prone tendencies in young adults. Because at this point your statistical competence is at an early stage, we will only be considering differences between two groups; that is how those who are in a flat affect/high boredom proneness group compare to those in a group with high psychological wellbeing/low boredom proneness. The purpose of the study is to examine how parenting of both mothers and fathers may be related to membership to these two groups. In addition, further psychological differences between the groups which may help explain or possibly be the result of the tendencies to boredom proneness will also be considered. These psychological factors are general self worth, environmental mastery (agency) and purpose in life.
The introduction should be about 850 words. You should first define generally what boredom proneness is and why it is of interest to study this phenomenon in adolescents/young adults, of how boredom proneness seems to be characterized by flattened affect. You may go on to review associated factors that are associated with boredom proneness, for example lack of agency and purpose or meaning in life which are likely to vary between young adults who are boredom prone compared to those who experience high wellbeing. You then need to make a case for why you might study family factors associated with boredom proneness, and whether aspects of parenting by both parents are equally important and any potential gender differences in parents influence on male compared to female adolescents/young adults.
You should end your introduction with general research aims and a set of more specific hypotheses/ research questions. There may be some things that you set up as issues simply to explore. At first when considering differences between the flat affect/ bored group compared to the high well being group you likely will make directional predictions that the flat affect group will experience higher boredom compared to the high wellbeing group along with other associated features such as lower general self worth etc. You might then predict that generally you would expect poorer relationships with both parents and less encouragement of autonomy for those in the flat affect/bored group. However, because there is relatively little and rather mixed evidence on the relative influence of mothers versus fathers on their male and female children you might say that this issue will be explored. Instead of making directional predictions it is recommended that you say that the study examined the relative strength of relationships holding between the parenting variables and boredom proneness.
You need to work out the total number of males and females in the study and their mean age and age range and the proportion who come from different backgrounds ( (e.g., Australian born etc.)
You only need to describe some of the measures that we are using in our analysis in this study. Note: I have placed a cut down version of the questionnaire with only the sections we are using under Assessment on Blackboard. I have described some measures for you as examples of what you have to do and you may cut and paste these sections into your report. Other measures you will have to describe. You need to describe the number of items in each scale and/or subscale where there are subscales. You have to describe the response format (e.g., 5 point Likert scale ranging from 1= never to 5 = always) and to give an example of the type of question for each subscale. If you were describing scales in a published piece of work you would also have to find more information about previous reliability and validity of the scale (not required for this short report).
Positive and Negative Affect Scale ( PANAS). The Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) (Watson, Clarke, and Tellegen, 1988) contained 20 words, 10 relating to positive and 10 relating to negative emotional states. Participants indicated the extent to which they generally experience each of these emotions on a five-point Likert scale (1 = very slightly/not at all, 5 = extremely). High scores on each subscale indicated a greater experience of positive or negative affect with scores ranging from 1 to 5.
The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21). The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995) contains 21 items with 7 items each assessing the experience of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress. Participants responded to each statement on a four-point Likert scale (0 = did not apply to me at all, 3 = applied to me very much, or most of the time). Higher scores indicated a greater amount of psychological distress with potential scores for the subscales and full-scale ranging from 0 to 3.
Boredom proneness: You need to do the description of the two subscales and how the total score was formed and give the formal references to this scale as I have done when describing the previous scales “ Reference Vodanovich, Wallace & Kass (2005).
Self Worth. An adapted version of The Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents (Harter, 1988) assessed self worth over seven domains: Scholastic, Job Competence, Social, Close Friendship, Romance, Athletic, and Appearance. Three items from the original scales in each of these domains were adapted so that only one of the original two statements per item was used, ( e.g., I like the way I look), with participants indicating their agreement on a seven-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree, 7 = strongly agree). Scores on each scale were summed and averaged to form a score in each domain. To form an index of General Self Worth the seven domain scores were summed and averaged with higher scores indicating greater General Self Worth with possible scores ranging from 1 to 7.
Purpose in Life and Environmental Mastery( Agency). You have to say that adapted 6 item versions of these scales were used. “ reference Ryff (1989)
Relationship with Mother and Father. Here you have to describe the subscales as well as the total scale and give the formal reference. “Reference- Nada Raja, McGee & Stanton ( 1992)
Autonomy Support. Autonomy support was measured using the 9 items from the autonomy support scale of the Perception of Parents Scales (Robbins, 1994) for each parent. Autonomy support indicated the degree to which parents encouraged their children to pursue their own interests and develop independence ( e.g., My mother/father, allowed me to decide things for myself. Items were responded to on 7 point Likert Scale ranging from 1= Not at all true to 7= very true with items scored so that higher scores represented greater autonomy score and the total score formed by summing and averaging across the items with possible scores ranging from 1 to 7.
Here you must describe how participants were recruited- there were potentially a variety of ways which you must describe (students in course, plus friends, acquaintances of students, plus via internet web sites). You need to indicate that all participants were informed about the purpose of the study and the nature of the questions they would be asked, their rights to choose not to participate in the study, to discontinue at any time, of their anonymity being guaranteed, plus they were advised about potential distress that might ensue from completing the survey and given information about potential support services if needed. Completion of the online questionnaire was taken as implied consent with these procedures being approved by the Sydney University Ethics Committee
In this section cut and paste this paragraph about formation of the two groups at the beginning of your results section.
Membership to the Flat Affect/Bored and High Wellbeing Groups.
Using a cluster technique participants were assigned to different psychological well being groups on the basis of their scores on the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) (Watson, Clarke, and Tellegen, 1988), and on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995). Six groups resulted with one corresponding to a group with flat affect so they did not have high or low scores on positive or negative affect, with this group also having relatively low scores compared to distressed groups on depression, anxiety and stress. Another group had high wellbeing with high levels of positive affect and the lowest levels of negative affect, depression, anxiety and stress of all the groups identified.
Comparison of the Flat Affect and High Wellbeing Groups.
Now proceed with your written results section, explaining the types analyses you did and reporting the results related to the three aspects:
Differences in Boredom Proneness between the two groups
Differences in General Self Worth, Environmental Mastery and Purpose in Life between the two groups
Differences in Relationship with Parents, and Autonomy Granting between the two groups
It is suggested that you might like to use two tables to report the results, with the first table reporting means and standard deviations for boredom proneness and associated psychological aspects. For example, this table might be formatted as follows:
Table 1. ( Add title here)
Flat Affect High Wellbeing
(n= ) ( n= )
M SD M SD _____________________________________________________________________
General Self Worth
Purpose in Life
A second table with a similar format might be used to report results related to parenting measures. You need to report the results of the independent measures t tests that relate to these tables in the accompanying text. You are expected to report these results in text and quote the t values and significance levels that pertain to each comparison. For example ( note figures are fictitious): As predicted, the flat affect group was found to show significantly higher levels of both Internal ( t ( 35) = 6.70 , p=.001) and External Boredom Proneness (t(35)=3.22, p= .01) as well as Total Boredom ( t( 35) = 5.43, p=.001) than the high wellbeing group. You may choose to quote exact significance figures for tests or use the p<.05, p<.01 or p<.001 convention. On occasion, where Levene s test is significant and the groups cannot be assumed to have equal variance, you may need to indicate that you used corrected degrees of freedom. In the final table report the results of the exploratory correlation analysis where you examined the relative strength of the relationships holding between mother s and father s parenting for boredom proneness in males and females. It is suggested that you use a format like the following: Table 3. ( add title here) _____________________________________________________________________ Females Males (n= ) (n= ) Mother s parenting Quality of relationship Autonomy granting Father s parenting Quality of relationship Autonomy granting ____________________________________________________________________ Instructions for how to analyse the data. The data file, devpsych.sav can be found under the assessment section of Blackboard and also under the lab for Week 6 under Learning Materials. The descriptive titles of the variables are fairly self explanatory. We are going to consider the differences between the two groups, that is the flat affect group and the high wellbeing group using an independent sample t test. Go to Analyse Scroll down and Select compare means Select independent sample t “test Select all the dependent measures you want to compare the two groups on- external boredom, internal boredom, total boredom, general self worth purpose in life, environmental mastery, mother relationship mother autonomy father relationship father autonomy. Select Group and transfer across to Grouping Variable Click on define groups- Group 1= 1 (High Wellbeing); Group 2=2 (Flat affect) Click on continue Click on OK and you have done it! All the t tests are done for you, but you will need to divide the results up into two tables when reporting them. Next you need to examine the strength of correlations between the parenting factors and total boredom proneness for males and females separately. The first step is to select cases for one gender using the commands under data in SPSS. Go to data Scroll down to Select cases Select the If option Select gender and transfer across Select =1 ( for males) Go to Analyse Scroll down and Select Correlations Select Bivariate Select all the measures you want to correlate- total boredom, mother relationship, mother autonomy, father relationship, father autonomy.- transfer across Click on OK Now repeat the above but select the other gender.-Select=0 (for females). Discussion. The discussion should be about 850 words long. First you should report results pertaining to how the groups differed in their boredom proneness and associated aspects such as General Self worth, Purpose in Life and Environmental Mastery. There is some flexibility as to whether you choose to engage in some discussion about these results at this point, or defer discussion on these aspects until after you have reported results pertaining to your other hypotheses/ research questions. You then need to report on differences between the groups on parenting factors and how mother s parenting compared to father s parenting is associated with male versus female young adult s boredom. You need to discuss how these parenting factors might contribute to processes which underpin boredom proneness given the pattern of findings we have. Do we know exactly how these processes work and the direction of causality? Are there other sorts of studies or other measures we need to include that might help us refine understanding of these processes and the direction of causality that flow between various parenting factors and some of the psychological factors either to produce boredom proneness, or which may be the outcome of boredom proneness. Possibly there are methodological issues that have influenced the results, or we may not have adequately measured various aspects. Elaborate these and indicate possible directions, improvements for future research. What are the practical implications of older adolescents/ young adults being boredom prone? Do our findings point towards potential causative factors and what implications do we draw from this? Finally you should draw your discussion to a close with a concluding comment. You are not expected to do an extensive literature search to flesh out your introduction or elaborate your discussion since a number of detailed references have already been provided. However, it is expected that two additional references beyond those listed are given to extend aspects of the introduction or discussion. Note you are not expected to read those articles that are references for the scales used except for the purpose of describing the scale. Also the articles listed are not meant to be read exhaustively in most cases. Rather they are given to get you can thinking about processes and aspects of functioning that link in with boredom proneness. Good luck with the research report. We hope that you enjoy exploring the issues and conducting the analyses. Below are all the required references (16) If the writer have any problems locating the references please message me because I may help assist in locating them. References Bargdill, R. W. (2000). The study of life boredom [Electronic version]. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 31, 188-219. Bartly, A.L. & Kirtley, M.S. (). Gender differences in the relationships among parenting styles and college student mental Health, Journal of American College Health, 60, 21-26 Hektner, J. M. (2001). Family, school, and community predictors of adolescent growth-conducive experiences: Global and specific approaches. Applied Developmental Science, 5, 172-183. Hunter, J. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2003). The positive psychology of interested adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32, 27-35. Melton, A. M. A., & Schulenberg, S. E. (2007). On the relationship between meaning in life and boredom proneness: Examining a logotherapy postulate [Electronic version]. Psychological Reports, 101, 1016-1022. Newberry, A. L., & Duncan, R. D. (2001). Roles of boredom and life goals in juvenile delinquency. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31, 527-541. Schmidt, J. A., & Padilla, B. (2003). Self-esteem and family challenge: An investigation of their effects on achievement [Electronic version]. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32, 37-46. Schwartz, S. J., CÃ´tÃ©, J. E., & Arnett, J. J. (2005). Identity and agency in emerging adulthood: Two developmental routes in the individualization process. Youth & Society, 37, 201-229. Soenens, B. Vansteenkiste, M. (2005). Antecedents and outcomes of self-determination in 3 life domains: The role of parents and teachers autonomy support. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34, 589-604. Scale References Harter, S. (1988). Manual for the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents. Denver, CO: University of Denver. Lovibond, P. F., & Lovibond, S. H. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 335-343. Nada Raja, S., McGee, R., & Stanton, W. R. (1992). Perceived attachments to parents and peers and psychological well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 21, 471-485. (Note this article is on electronic counter reserve under name of Nada Raja as the library has not got older issues of this journal). Robbins, R. J. (1994). An assessment of perceptions of parental autonomy support and control: Child and parent correlates. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Psychology, University of Rochester. Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1069-1081. Vodanovich, S. J., & Wallace, J. C., & Kass, S. J. (2005). A confirmatory approach to the factor structure of the boredom proneness scale: Evidence for a two-factor short form. Journal of Personality Assessment, 85, 295-303. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of Positive and Negative Affect: The PANAS Scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063-1070. I"ve attached word document of the instructions, data and the questionaire [meteor_slideshow slideshow="fe2"] Focusessays.com has been offering academic support services to students since 2002 and more than 60% of our customers are return clients. We have skilled and experienced writers in all academic levels and subjects. 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