clinical microbiology and virology (Topic: Antimicrobial Therapies)


The occurrence of microbes that are resistant to antibiotics has always been of clinical importance, ever since antibiotics were widely used in the 1940 s. There are a wide range of factors that have lead to the wide-spread occurrence of antibiotic-resistant microbes. In 2008 a new metallo-β-lactamase enzyme conferring antibiotic resistance was identified in Enterobacteriaceae species Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. The enzyme, named New Dehli metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) after its apparent city of origin, confers resistance to the clinically important carbapenem group of antibiotics (Kumarasamy et al., 2010).

Write an 1800 word essay describing the emergence of NDM-1. You should discuss development and mechanisms of action of beta-lactamase enzymes in general and, metallo=beta-lactamases in particular You should include details of the genetic features and structure of NDM-1 and describe antimicrobial strategies to deal with NDM-1.


The assignment should consist of:

1. An Introduction, outlining the contents and the organization of the essay.

2. Main Text: Use subheadings as appropriate. Include figures/tables as appropriate. It is not sufficient to simply provide a table with information, you need to refer to that information in the text as well.

For in text references you should use the Author-Date format: e.g. Renaud & de Logeril (1992) have shown that or if more than three authors as Renaud et al. (1992) have shown that Page numbers of references are NOT required to be quoted in the text.

3. A Conclusion/Summary.

Be careful with Plagiarism
. A List of References that you have consulted to help formulate your essay. References to articles or books in the format:

Renaud, S. & de Logeril, M. 1992. Wine alcohol, platelets and the French paradox for coronary heart disease. Lancet 339: 1523-1526.

Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 12th ed. (Madigan, M.T., Martinko, J. M. & Parker, J., eds.) 2008. Prentice-Hall, New York.

References to the Internet should be used sparingly. You are expected to read relevant peer-reviewed, scientific journal articles not just access web sites. If you access reputable web sites and need to provide a reference you should use the following format: Authors (if available), title of the article, last update of the site, access date (that is the date you accessed the site), and then the full URL address.

To write a successful essay you first need to read widely on the assignment topic. It is not sufficient to simply regurgitate information from your textbook or the topic notes or a web site. The following article is a good place to start. You will be expected to find, read and reference additional articles in my essay.

Kumarasamy, K., Toleman, M.A., Walsh, T.R., et al. (2010) �€�Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study . Lancet Infectious Diseases; 10: 597-602.
Please use some of the recomended web site in the attachment.

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