clinical microbiology and virology (Topic: Antimicrobial Therapies) custom essay

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The occurrence of microbes that are resistant to antibiotics has always been of clinical importance, ever since antibiotics were widely used in the 1940’s. There are a wide range of factors that have lead to the wide-spread occurrence of antibiotic-resistant microbes. In 2008 a new metallo-β-lactamase enzyme conferring antibiotic resistance was identified in Enterobacteriaceae species Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. The enzyme, named New Dehli metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) after its apparent city of origin, confers resistance to the clinically important carbapenem group of antibiotics (Kumarasamy et al., 2010).

Write an 1800 word essay describing the emergence of NDM-1. You should discuss development and mechanisms of action of beta-lactamase enzymes in general and, metallo=beta-lactamases in particular You should include details of the genetic features and structure of NDM-1 and describe antimicrobial strategies to deal with NDM-1.


The assignment should consist of:

1. An Introduction, outlining the contents and the organization of the essay.

2. Main Text: Use subheadings as appropriate. Include figures/tables as appropriate. It is not sufficient to simply provide a table with information, you need to refer to that information in the text as well.

For in text references you should use the Author-Date format: e.g. “Renaud & de Logeril (1992) have shown that…” or if more than three authors as “Renaud et al. (1992) have shown that…” Page numbers of references are NOT required to be quoted in the text.

3. A Conclusion/Summary.

Be careful with Plagiarism
. A List of References that you have consulted to help formulate your essay. References to articles or books in the format:

Renaud, S. & de Logeril, M. 1992. Wine alcohol, platelets and the French paradox for coronary heart disease. Lancet 339: 1523-1526.

Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 12th ed. (Madigan, M.T., Martinko, J. M. & Parker, J., eds.) 2008. Prentice-Hall, New York.

References to the Internet should be used sparingly. You are expected to read relevant peer-reviewed, scientific journal articles not just access web sites. If you access reputable web sites and need to provide a reference you should use the following format: Authors (if available), title of the article, last update of the site, access date (that is the date you accessed the site), and then the full URL address.

To write a successful essay you first need to read widely on the assignment topic. It is not sufficient to simply regurgitate information from your textbook or the topic notes or a web site. The following article is a good place to start. You will be expected to find, read and reference additional articles in my essay.

Kumarasamy, K., Toleman, M.A., Walsh, T.R., et al. (2010) �€�Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study’. Lancet Infectious Diseases; 10: 597-602.
Please use some of the recomended web site in the attachment.

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