Choking under pressure

Task Description:
An experiment demonstrating a psychological phenomena will be conducted during tutorials. This assignment involves writing up a laboratory report of that experiment. Your tutor will guide you through the process of how to report such a study. YOU MUST ATTEND TUTORIALS IN ORDER TO ACCESS THE INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR THE ASSESSMENT. Your assignment will include an introduction section that describes the research questions, critically reviews some of the relevant literature, and introduces the current study and hypotheses. Your tutor will provide you with a summary of the results during tutorial. Your assignment will conclude with a discussion section that describes what was found, and relates the findings to the existing literature. This section should also consider alternative explanations, strengths, limitations, and possible future directions. You should use APA format. You will not be asked to write an Abstract as part of this assignment, although these are typically included in such research reports. There is a 1000 word limit for this assignment.

1. 3 volunteers are required for a typing task
2. Volunteers will complete 3 typing tasks
3. Once volunteers are selected they will be asked to leave the room until
they are required to complete the task
4. The typing task will be conducted under 3 different conditions for a
period of 45 secs.
 No Pressure
– Participants will type the provided text with the overhead projection screen turned off, meaning no
text is visible to the tutorial group
 Low Pressure
– Participants will type the provided text with the typed text visible to the tutorial group
 High Pressure
– The tutorial group will be crowded around the participant while they type the provided text  the
typed text will be visible to the tutorial group
5. Please do not speak to the participant while they are typing

Complete lab report overview
 Introduction
 Method
 Results
 Discussion
 References

INTRODUCTION, DISCUSSION AND REFERENCES SECTION ONLY( will be given Method and results part, don t need to submit method and results part)

Submission : Introduction (need to complete and submit)
Funnel your ideas from general to specific

General introduction to the topic of the report
Define any key terms as you use them
(and include references)
Literature review
Rationale for our study;
Description of our study;

 General introduction to topic (include these when
constructing your opening paragraph)
â—¦ What is your topic?
â—¦ Define choking
â—¦ What is it about this topic that makes it important, i.e. worthy
of research?
â—¦ In subsequent paragraphs define any psychological term that
you think a non psychology student may not understand
– All definitions should be referenced i.e. provide a credible
reference source for the term (author, date)

Literature review
â—¦ This is where you describe, summarise, and critically evaluate
peer reviewed literature (from journal articles, e.g. the
recommended readings) which you think is relevant to the topic
(we will cover this in more detail next week)
â—¦ The literature review will underpin your rationale (see later)
and hypothesis
– It should include basic information about the topic (e.g. summary
of theories)
– It should also involve a description and critical evaluation of at
least two experimental studies: this will become basis of your

 Rationale (we will discuss this in later tutorials)
â—¦ This is the justification for, or significance of, your study
â—¦ It results from a critical analysis of the experimental literature (e.g.
we identified potential problem X and therefore we will address
problem X)
â—¦ Gives reason for knowing why an answer to the hypothesis is
â—¦ Suggests how addressing this issue (and hence why the study) will
contribute to the research conducted to date
â—¦ This involves briefly describing (in a sentence or two) what the
participants did in the experiment (that we conducted during tutorial
â—¦ Remember you are writing from the perspective of the researcher
throughout your report

 Aim
â—¦ This is when you describe the purpose of your study (not
the same as your rationale; it is a simpler version of your
rationale because it is not including the context of why
you are doing study)
â—¦ What do you think it is?
â—¦ Investigate the effect of pressure on skilled
performance (i.e. the typing task)

 Hypothesis = prediction
 This is the logical culmination of your literature
review, rationale, aim, and description
 Before attempting to form your hypothesis in class
today, lets briefly review the important information
leading up to this.

Understanding the logic underlying your hypothesis
Firstly, recall that we manipulated pressure under
three conditions:
 no pressure “ invisible typing
 low pressure “ visible typing
 high pressure “ crowding

Secondly, recall that from a general theoretical
perspective, we would expect choking to occur when
stress makes people try harder and this leads to disruption
of automatic, practiced performance so they choke OR
 stress makes people distracted from their performance
so they choke.
Therefore, in OUR experiment which condition (no-,
low-, high-pressure) would we expect to be:
– the best in terms of amount of text retyped?
– the most accurate, i.e. the least errors?

Results (given don t need to submit)

Amount of Errors
The results were collated across all tutorial groups and a one-way withinsubjects analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted with the within-subjects
factor being Pressure (three levels) and the dependent variable being amount of
errors. The results showed that, generally speaking, the amount of errors was
significantly affected by Pressure condition, F(2, 18) = 20.160, p. < .05. Follow up comparisons between each Pressure condition found that the amount of errors in the high pressure condition (M = 3.67, SD = 0.92) was significantly higher than the amount of errors in the no pressure condition (M = 3.22, SD = 0.60 ), and the low pressure condition (M = 2.89, SD = 0.51). The amount of errors in the no pressure condition was significantly higher than in the low pressure condition. Amount of Words A one-way within-subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted with the within-subjects factor being Pressure (three levels) and the dependent variable being word amount. The results showed that, generally speaking, the number of words typed was significantly affected by Pressure condition, F(2, 18) = 16.65, p. < .05. Follow up comparisons between each Pressure condition found that there was significantly more words typed in the low pressure condition (M = 47.72, SD = 9.65) compared to the high pressure condition (M = 40.67, SD = 10.35), which in turn was significantly less than in the no pressure (M = 46.50, SD = 9.4) condition. The difference between the no pressure and low pressure conditions was not statistically significant however Method (Given don t need to submit) — Method section:  Typically describes the following: o How you conducted your study - Provide enough detail so that: The reader can evaluate whether the methods were appropriate and reliable The study could be replicated by another researcher o The sample and how it was obtained/recruited o The design of the study o The materials used - Describe any novel or non-standard measurement instruments o The procedure (in some detail) Participants and Design Participants were 18 undergraduate psychology students (female = 12, male = 6), recruited through tutorials. The mean age was 22.5 years (SD = 7.29), and ranged from 18 to 39 years. There was one within-groups independent variable, which was pressure level (no pressure, low pressure, high pressure). There were two dependent variables, which were amount of (1) words and (2) errors. Materials and Procedure The study was conducted in first year psychology tutorials. In each tutorial, three students volunteered to be participants in a typing task. The participants waited outside the room until it was their turn to participate. One at a time, the participants completed three typing tasks, under three conditions. Each condition was assigned a script of text for the participants to type. Participants were instructed to type as much as they could, as accurately as they could in the time allocated (45 seconds per script). The three conditions were levels of pressure. The no pressure condition consisted of participants typing while the projector screen was turned off, so no one else in the room could see what they were typing. In the low pressure condition, the screen was turned on, so the rest of the class could see what was being typed. In the high pressure condition, the class crowded around the participant as they typed. The conditions were counterbalanced between participants. Discussion (need to complete and submit) Discussion structure Aim' Hypothesis' Restate'results' Explanation'for'results'' “ 'supports'the'literature' Alternative'interpretation' Critical'analysis'of'own'study' Implications'of''key'findings Discussion: The purpose Overall: to discuss the conclusions that can be drawn from the results In contrast to the Introduction, your Discussion begins more specifically about the support or nonsupport for the research hypothesis " Discussion of results & main findings " Consider alternative interpretations " Consider methodological strengths and limitations " Comment on the broader implications of your findings " Consider possible future research directions. Discussion: Structure (what to include) ! Restate the research aim ! Restate hypothesis and whether or not the results supported the hypothesis ! Briefly restate results ! Give explanations for the results, supported by research: " Do the current results provide support for earlier findings (reported in the literature) ! Any alternative interpretations? ! Give critical analysis of the findings/study " List one strength of your study (and state why it is); one limitation (and why) " Next, state how this limitation might be overcome in future studies ! Deliberate on the implications of the key findings by either (the concluding statement/s): " 1) state the practical implications of the research results; or " 2) suggest a possible future avenue for research in this area Revision: Discussion ! example interpretation: ✗ It was shown that the hypothesis was unsupported. ✗ The hypothesis was supported and these results are consistent with the results of Hibbert and Hoover in their study œLoneliness and cheeseburgers are a dangerous mix in The Psychological Bulletin (2007). A limitation of the study was ✓ The aim of this study was to compare the dietary behaviours of single males with cohabiting adults. The hypothesis that cooking for one would result in poor dietary practices was supported. Results showed that _____. This finding may be explained by Singles Eating theory (Van Houten, 2003) which states that people who lived alone Therefore the single male participants may have . Revision: Discussion ! example limitation: ✗ A fatal flaw of this study is the methodology used. ✗ The fact that one of the students in my group fell asleep throughout the procedure was a serious weakness and this could have seriously impacted the results. ✓ ___ may have been a limitation of the study because of ____. ✓ One limitation of the present study was ___, because of ___ and this may have had ____ outcome on the results of the study. A way to overcome this in future research ____. Discussion: Tips ! Do not overstate the results ! Do not include the statistics ! Do not use the words ˜proves or ˜causes " Alternatives for ˜proves # ˜suggests or ˜indicates " Alternative for ˜causes # ˜tendency, ˜propensity, ˜association, or ˜relationship ! Do not use quotes " Paraphrase and use your own words to demonstrate your understanding ! Be concise and ensure your story flows ! Do be sure to interpret the results in some detail before moving on to the strengths and limitations of the study References (need to complete and submit) APA referencing Recommended Readings: Beilock, S. L. (2007). Choking under pressure. In R. Baumeister and K. Vohs (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Social Psychology. Sage Publications. Cao, Z. , Price, J., & Stone, D.F. (2011). Performance under pressure in the NBA. Journal of Sports Economics, 12(3), 231252. *** Markman, A. B., Maddox, W. T., & Worthy, D. A. (2006). Choking and Excelling Under Pressure. Psychological Science, 17(11), 944948. *** Svoboda, E. (2009). Avoiding the big choke. Scientific American Mind, FebMar 2009, 3641. *** Tanaka, Y., & Sekiya, H. (2010). The Influence of Audience and Monetary Reward on the Putting Kinematics of Expert and Novice Golfers. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 81, 416424. ** Worthy, D. A., Markman, A. B., & Maddox, W. T. (2009). Choking and excelling at the freethrow line. The International Journal of Creativity and Problem Solving, 19, 5358. * you may choose to use some of these recommended readings in your lab report, or you may wish to find other, or additional readings ** via PYSC1030 Library Readings *** via the Library site **** access via Google Scholar [meteor_slideshow slideshow="fe2"] has been offering academic support services to students since 2002 and more than 60% of our customers are return clients. We have skilled and experienced writers in all academic levels and subjects. Entrust us with your assignment and you will get a custom essay which is 100% original within its deadline. 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