How To Avoid Plagiarism

Tips on Avoiding Plagiarism

  1. If you use direct quotations from books, journal articles, or internet sources, always use a quotation mark, followed by the in-text reference, including the page number. If you use a website as a source, include the paragraph number instead of the page number.
  2. Reference all the sources you used. If the idea was mentioned and presented by more than one author and sources, you need to list them all, if you consulted with the papers. If you are referring to multiple sources highlighting an issue or explaining a phenomenon, give details of all of them.
  3. If you conduct interviews or ask for advice from experts, discuss your topic with other people, you have to reference their input. Find out how to reference interviews and personal correspondence to avoid plagiarism by checking out our APA referencing guide.
  4. Paraphrase. Instead of quoting everything word-for-word, you can integrate the literature you consulted with in a few sentences and provide a reference for each source. You do not have to be exact, and you will need to show your understanding of the idea by putting it into your own words.
  5. Check and double check your reference list. One of the most common mistakes students make is that they quote certain sources, but they forget to list them in their bibliography or works cited page. After you finish writing your essay or research paper, go through the content and check that all sources are included in the reference list. This is a habit that will help you avoid plagiarism.
  6. Provide a full reference for all internet sources. While you might be tempted to simply mention the name of the website you retrieved the information from, this is not acceptable in academic writing. You need to find out who the author of the blog post or article is, and include their name in your references along with the date of publication. If you do not know the name of the author, you can simply use “Anon”, but never omit this information.
  7. Check Creative Commons agreements. You might want to use an image of a company’s logo or store as an illustration for your dissertation and essay, however, you need to check the usage rights before you do. Always search images and graphics through the Creative Commons website, and only use sources you are allowed to.

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Law Essay Critiques

I need 2 (4 total) paragraphs in regard to each of the essays below fitting the following reqs: 150 words in 1-3 paragraphs per essay. What did you learn from your classmates posting? What additional questions do you have after reading the posting? What clarification do you need regarding the posting? What differences or similarities do you see between your posting and other classmates postings? Essay #1 Negligence Business Law I MGMT235-1402B-04 Phase 3 Discussion Board Thank you for attending this important employee meeting on the topic of negligence. As many of you know, our organization can be held liable for negligent acts that are committed by our employees therefore the management team felt it was most important to provide all of you more information about negligence as it relates to Business Law. Please pay close attention to the topics presented in this session and consider your actions as you conduct your duties each day. While all of you are excellent employees, it only takes the negligent or irresponsible actions of a single employee to cause great harm to the general public, to the individual employee, and to the company as a whole. First, it is important to know that there are four elements that must be considered when discussing negligence. The first of these elements is Duty. A duty in this case is described as a legal obligation typically established in a contract. In order to be liable for negligence, the defendant of a lawsuit must have some established or owed duty to the plaintiff (NationalParalegal.Edu, 2010). The second element of negligence to consider is Breach. A breach is described as a violation of the duty or law. In cases of negligence, a defendant is not liable for negligence unless they breach their duty (NationalParalegal.Edu, 2010). The third element to consider is Cause. To be held liable for negligence, the breach of duty (on the part of the defendant) must have caused harm to the plaintiff (NationalParalegal.Edu, 2010). The final element to consider is Harm. In cases of negligence, the plaintiff must have suffered harm to be able to sue the defendant for negligence (NationalParalegal.Edu, 2010). When discussing the topic of corporate negligence and the fact that companies are liable for the negligent acts of their employers it is also important to understand respondeat superior. This legal doctrine holds that an employer is legally responsible for the wrongful acts of an agent or employee. This only holds true however if the acts occur within the scope of the employment or agency (Cornell.edu, 2013). It is important for employers to be aware of this legal doctrine so they do everything within their power to hire, train, and incent employees to act in lawful and responsible ways so as not to put the company at risk. To better illustrate the doctrine of respondeat superior, I am reviewing the case of Michael S. Barclay vs. the Estate of Christopher Eugene Richardson. This case was brought to court after a motor vehicle operated by Christopher Richardson crashed into a motor vehicle operated by Michael S. Barclay. This crash occurred after Christopher Robinson had worked a 22 hour shift as a longshoreman and attempted to drive home once his shift was complete. On his drive, he fell asleep at the wheel, crossed the center line, and caused a head on collision with the vehicle driven by Michael Barclay. The crash killed Mr. Robinson and caused catastrophic injuries to Mr. Barclay and his wife. The Barclays sued not only the estate of Mr. Robinson, but also the Baltimore Ports organization, the international longshoremens association, and the steamship trade association. They argued that these organizations were responsible under the doctrine of respondeat superior. The case stated that these organizations breached their duty to the general public not to allow and/or encourage their employees to work in excess of a reasonable number of hours beyond the normal human tolerance, knowing that the employees commuted to and from work in their personal vehicles. The attorneys for P & O Ports argued that the Plaintiffs did not present any evidence to demonstrate that P & O Ports consented to Mr. Richardson using his personal vehicle at the time the accident occurred. Furthermore, the facts did not indicate that Mr. Richardsons car was critically important to P & O Ports business. Specifically, the courts concluded that the employer control over Mr. Richardsons private vehicle could not be inferred (Court of Appeals of Maryland, 2011) thereby limiting the liability of the company. In this case, the court ruled first that Ports, the longshoremen, and the steamship trade association could not be held liable for Richardsons acts. The judge stated: Liability may be imposed on an employer only the employee is operating a vehicle while carrying out the duties of his employment at the time when the accident occurs. I do believe that it is fair to hold companies accountable for the actions of their employees. I think that this incents companies to recruit honest, loyal, and hard-working people, to train their staff on safety measures and acceptable conduct in the workplace, and to ensure that their employees are acting in the best interests of both the company and the general public. While this obviously presents some risk to the company, I believe it is necessary to provide individuals who are in the employ of others some level of protection as well. This means that if an employee is acting responsibly on behalf of his or her company and an accident occurs, the employee is protected from personal liability. Finally, I believe that this is necessary to protect the interests of the possible plaintiffs in a case. In many cases, individual employees will not have many assets or means to repay a plaintiff in cases where significant harm or damage occurs. Making the company responsible for actions of the employee gives the plaintiff some more substantial assets from which to recover his or her damages. To summarize this paper, I do believe that the topic of negligence and the ramifications of negligence in the workplace is an important one to consider as individuals are recruited, trained, and promoted through the organization. Individuals who can or will not conform to a companys standard operating procedures put all individual employees and the company as a whole at risk. Essay #2 In this handout we are going to be discussing what employee negligence is and how it can affect you as employees. Employee negligence can be considered a lot of different things. When an employee does not receive enough training for their job this would be considered employee negligence. If an employee works a lot of hours in one shift, this would be considered employee negligence. As the employer it is our job to protect our employees from harassment or discrimination. It is our job as your employer to make sure that the employee is taking care of and making sure you are in a very safe environment both physically and mentally. If any of you employees feel that this is happening to you or has happened to you, please report it or talk to someone about any issues you may be having. When it comes to negligence there are four elements and they are duty of care, breach of duty, factual causation and damages. 1. Duty of Care this is the employers responsibility to take care of the employees 2. Breach of Duty This is when the employer has not taken care of their employees. This can mean multiple things, for instance if you work too many hours in one shift or if there is any type of discrimination. 3. Factual Causation You have to have facts to prove that the breach of duty took place. 4. Damages Once the case was proven, damages are decided from the jury and it will be awarded to the employee. It all depends on what the occurrence was. RESPONDEAT SUPERIOR A common-law doctrine that makes an employer liable for the actions of an employee when the actions take place within the scope of employment. (Dictionary, 2008) This is an important legal concept and employers should be aware of respondeat superior because anytime something occurs in the work place the employer could be liable. As long as the care of duty of the employees is being taken care in the work place there should not be any problems with respondeat superior. For all of you to understand respondeat superior below is a legal case involving RESPONDEAT SUPERIOR: Piccadilly Cafeteria had their Christmas party for their employees in their restaurant and alcohol was provided on Christmas Eve. Two employees Charles Sayles and Stephen Belcastro left the party and Belcastro decided to drive knowing that they both had been drinking. Belcastro lost control of the car and struck another car injuring Sayles. Because Belcastro was intoxicated as a result of having drinks provided by their employer at a company sponsored event, Sayles sued Piccadilly under the doctrine of respondeat superior. The jury returned a verdict in Sayles favor and awarded him damages of $11.5 million. (Respondeat, 2008) In my opinion, I do believe it is fair to hold employers responsible for negligent acts of their employees but I think it should be based on the situation. In the above case I do feel that the employer should not have been responsible for the wreck even if alcohol was given at the employees Christmas party. It is our responsibility as adults to make the right decisions about drinking and driving. The two men should have known not to get in a car and drive off knowing that they had consumed alcohol. There are many things that the employees could have done to prevent this, one being calling a cab or friend to come pick them up. Now, that the company had to award him $11.5 million, I guarantee their Christmas parties will never have alcohol at them. This lawsuit affected many people because these men had to ruin it for everyone else. Because these men did not make the best decision they blame it on their work. My opinion is that, Piccadilly did not tell him to drink nor to get in the car and drive. Piccadilly did not cause the accident. It was the driver of the car. Now, lets just say that an employee is having issues with sexual harassment in the office. I then believe it is the employer who should be at fault in this scenario. I just believe that it should be based on the situation to whether the employer is at fault or not. Everyone is entitled to their own opinion and this is what I believe. Overall, our actions as employers or employees should be to be responsible and know what is right and wrong when you are making decisions. As employers you should know what and how the duty of care should be in the working environment and the best decisions should be made regarding each and every employee. As an employee, if you are having any issues or concerns at work you should be able to go to your employer and discuss any issues.

science paper

Step 1 Worksheets Analyze issues and needs to state program behavioral goals Before you design any nutrition education intervention, whether it is a few sessions or a larger program with several components, it is important to determine your intervention focus and identify your intended primary audience. When those have been determined, you will need detailed information on the behaviors and practices that contribute to the issue or problem you have selected as your intervention focus. Step 1 worksheets will help you conduct assessments to obtain the information you will need. Think of yourself as a detective as you work through these worksheets. You are trying to find out as much as you can to determine which core behaviors or behavioral goals will be the targets for your educational sessions. The information you collect may be quite extensive, depending on the scope and duration of your intervention, and will vary by category. Cite information sources (e.g., journal article, government report, observation, interview) used in the worksheet in a bibliography at the end of this step. At the end of the Step 1 worksheets, you should have products for Steps 1A, 1B, and 1C as follows: Step 1A: Health issues or needs (one or two) and primary intended audience for the nutrition education intervention. Examples are overweight in teenagers or low rates of breastfeeding in a low-income audience. Step 1B: High-priority behaviors contributing to the selected issues. A set of one to a few nutrition-related behaviors or community practices that contribute to the health issue(s) that you identified. Step 1C: Statement of the programs behavioral or action goals. The behavioral or action goals describe the purpose or behavioral outcomes for the program in terms of behaviors or community practices. Use these worksheets as guides to help you identify program behavioral goals. Cite information sources in the text and add references to the bibliography at the end of the step. Electronic versions of these worksheets are available at http://nutrition.jbpub.com/education/2e. If you are unable to access the worksheets electronically, you can write onto this blank worksheet or create a text document that uses the same flow of information. Step 1A: Issues and intended audience Describe the demographics of your audience (e.g., age, subgroup, ethnicity) and the location of the site. Step 1 Worksheets Analyze issues and needs to state program behavioral goals Analyze the priority health issues for your audience. Research. What does scientific research suggest as the major health issues for this audience? Policy. What do governmental guidelines recommend as priority health issues? + + + Audience. What are specific health issues and needs related to the intended audience (from objective and subjective data)? Organization. What does the organization and/or funding source state as key health priorities to address? + Step 1 Worksheets Analyze issues and needs to state program behavioral goals Determine one or two priority health issues for the program to address. From the issues you identified, prioritize based on greatest need, whether education can help, the importance to the audience, and importance to the organization. Step 1B: Contributing behaviors or practices Identify the behaviors or practices that contribute to the priority health issues. Nutrition research literature Monitoring data or consumer surveys Information from intended audience + + Step 1 Worksheets Analyze issues and needs to state program behavioral goals List the top behaviors or practices that contribute to the priority health issues. Then rate each issue on importance, modifiability, feasibility, and desirability. Behavior/practice Importance for health issue Modifiable* Feasible Desirable to audience 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. *Consider complexity, relative advantage, compatibility, and observability of behavior. Step 1C: Behavioral goals Choose one or a few behavioral goals from the list above to be the focus of your program. State the selected behavioral goals and provide justification for the selection of your focus behaviors or community practices. Step 1 Worksheets Analyze issues and needs to state program behavioral goals References Step 2 Worksheets Identify personal and environmental mediators of change In Step 2, you will find out as much as possible about why audience members make the food and activity choices they do as well as what might motivate, facilitate, and support them to take on the goal behaviors. Theory provides you with the framework to ask the questions and organize the answers. At the end of the Step 2 worksheets, you should have the following products for Steps 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, and 2E: Step 2A: Description of the sociocultural environment in which your audience lives. Step 2B: List of current behaviors, practices, policies, and environmental factors that are assets for the audiences achievement of the program goal behaviors. Step 2C: List of thoughts, feelings, and skills that are rooted in theory that potentially mediate the audiences motivation for and ability to achieve the programs goal behaviors or community practices. Step 2D: List of potential actions for the program to take to provide environment and policy supports for the audiences achievement of the program goal behaviors. Step 2E: Description of audience characteristics and list of resource considerations that will help you plan the practical aspects of your program. Use these worksheets as guides to help you identify the personal mediators and environmental determinants of change. Cite information sources in the text and add references to the bibliography at the end of the step. Electronic versions of these worksheets are available at http://nutrition.jbpub.com/education/2e/. If you are unable to access the worksheets electronically, you can write onto this blank worksheet or create a text document that uses the same flow of information. Step 2A: Audiences sociocultural environment Describe the social and cultural environment of the audience with respect to your goal behaviors. Consider the following questions: What is their life stage (e.g., teen, senior, mother), and how does this stage influence their eating and activity patterns? What is their living situation, and how does this influence their eating and activity patterns? What are the cultural beliefs that influence their eating and activity patterns? How does their lifestyle (e.g., work, family, recreation, social obligations) influence their ability to make healthy food and activity choices? How do their religious beliefs influence their eating and activity patterns? Step 2 Worksheets Identify personal and environmental mediators of change Step 2B: Individual and community assets Identify existing behaviors, practices, environmental factors, and policies that support your goal behaviors. Individual behaviors and community practices that support your programs behavioral goals Environmental factors and policies that support your programs behavioral goals + Step 2C: Potential personal mediators Find out about your audiences thoughts and feelings related to the motivational mediators listed below from psychosocial theories. Potential motivating mediators from theory Audiences thoughts and feelings in relation to each mediator, specific to achieving your goal behaviors Perceived risk or sense of concern Perceived benefits (i.e., positive outcome expectations) Perceived barriers (i.e., negative outcome expectations) Affective attitudes (i.e., feelings about the behavior) Perceived behavioral control/self-efficacy Social norms (i.e., what others think participants should do) Descriptive norms (i.e., beliefs of others about the behavior) Other Step 2 Worksheets Identify personal and environmental mediators of change Find out about your audiences knowledge, skills, and other factors from theory listed below. Facilitating mediators from theory Audiences knowledge and skills in relation to each mediator, specific to achieving your goal behaviors Food and nutrition knowledge Food and nutrition skills related to the targeted behavior Critical thinking skills Self-efficacy Goal setting (making action plans) Self-assessment/self-monitoring skills Reinforcements Others Step 2D: Environmental/policy supports Find out how you could change the environmental and policy supports listed below to facilitate your intended audience in performing your goal behaviors. Environmental and policy supports How each environmental and policy support could be changed, specific to achieving your goal behaviors Decision makers awareness and motivation Social environment (e.g., family, networks, support) Food environment (e.g., availability, accessibility) Built environment (e.g., walkable streets, parks) Organizational food policy Information environment(e.g., media watched/read, setting) Policy activities at the community and national levels Step 2 Worksheets Identify personal and environmental mediators of change Step 2E: Audience and resources Add details about your audience that are important for delivering your program. Audience trait Description Educational level or schooling Physical and cognitive developmental level and ability (children only) Literacy and numeracy skills Preferred learning style Special needs Emotional needs Social needs Describe the resources available for your program. Program resources Available resources Time Space Equipment General administrative support Step 2 Worksheets Identify personal and environmental mediators of change References Topic Chosing-Alzheimers disease

MKTG345-7SP13 / ?§ QUIZZES AND TESTS

test 2 Marketing managers often use in-store promotions to stimulate sales of: Select one: a. technical products b. high-involvement products c. high-priced products d. industrial products e. low-involvement products Question 2 Not yet answered Marked out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following statements about reference groups is true? Select one: a. Reference groups stimulate, but do not constrain, consumption behavior. b. Reference groups have strong influence on all brands and product purchases. c. A person can only belong to one reference group. d. Reference groups serve as information sources and influence perceptions. e. Understanding reference groups has not been helpful to marketers. Question 3 Not yet answered Marked out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Day CareFiona is considering a day care facility for her five-week-old daughter Kate. She has been visiting day care centers for the past two weeks and has interviewed caregivers at eight different centers. It is extremely important to Fiona that Kate be stimulated intellectually and fed according to schedule. After considering all eight centers, Fiona chose PerfectCare. While she is quite pleased with her choice, she continues to wonder if she made the correct decision. Refer to Day Care. Fionas visits to the day care centers, interviews with the caregivers, and input from family and friends represent which step of the consumer decision process? Select one: a. Postpurchase behavior b. Stimulus generalization c. Evaluation of alternatives d. Information search e. Need recognition Question 4 Not yet answered Marked out of 1.00 Flag question Question text College DecisionJuan is a senior in high school and is deciding which university to go to after he graduates. He has received several pieces of mail from local universities with information on scholarship opportunities because he has a good GPA and a high ACT score. He and his parents have visited several schools and have talked to advisors regarding his chosen major of marketing. Juan is thinking about going to the local community college where all of his friends are planning to go, but his parents want him to go to a more prestigious school because they think he will get a better education there. Refer to College Decision. One person from whom Juan has sought advice is his school guidance counselor, Mr. More. Mr. More is respected by students and parents alike and knows a lot about the schools Juan is considering. Mr. More can be considered a(n): Select one: a. influencer b. decider c. opinion leader d. gatekeeper e. market maven Question 5 Not yet answered Marked out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Which of the following is the BEST example of an internal stimulus that would create need recognition? Select one: a. A friend comments on how shabby your coat looks b. A radio station runs an ad for a new video game rental store c. A headache d. An invitation to a graduation for which you need a gift e. A billboard promoting a new national Internet service provider Question 6 Not yet answered Marked out of 1.00 Flag question Question text When consumers change or distort information that conflicts with their feelings or beliefs, it is called: Select one: a. selective distortion b. selective dissonance c. intermittent reinforcement d. selective retention e. selective exposure Question 7 Not yet answered Marked out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Families of police officers often alter information they hear about officers who die in the line of duty. This _____ allows them to live and function without constant anxiety while their loved one is engaged in a potentially dangerous job. Select one: a. selective retention b. selective distortion c. selective exposure d. faulty selectivity e. adaptive stimulus Question 8 Not yet answered Marked out of 1.00 Flag question Question text College DecisionJuan is a senior in high school and is deciding which university to go to after he graduates. He has received several pieces of mail from local universities with information on scholarship opportunities because he has a good GPA and a high ACT score. He and his parents have visited several schools and have talked to advisors regarding his chosen major of marketing. Juan is thinking about going to the local community college where all of his friends are planning to go, but his parents want him to go to a more prestigious school because they think he will get a better education there. Refer to College Decision. Juans friends might influence him to go to the local community college. What type of reference group characterizes his friends? Select one: a. Indirect b. Primary c. Secondary d. Aspirational e. Nonaspirational Question 9 Not yet answered Marked out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Dennis Haysbert stars in Allstate ads reminding consumers that they could be in a car crash or another event requiring insurance. Hence the slogan Youre in Good Hands with Allstate. These ads focus on which of Maslows needs? Select one: a. Esteem needs b. Economic needs c. Safety needs d. Physiological needs e. Social needs Question 10 Not yet answered Marked out of 1.00 Flag question Question text A driving force that causes a person to take action to satisfy specific needs is called a(n): Select one: a. instigator b. motive c. enforcer d. stimulus e. belief aterpillar, Inc., a manufacturer of earthmoving equipment, uses completed drivetrains (engines/transmissions/axles), drivetrain components, electronic controls, hydraulic and electrohydraulic components and systems, cooling systems, and undercarriage track systems produced by other organizations in its manufacturing process. Caterpillar is an example of a(n): Select one: a. fabricator. b. installer. c. original equipment manufacturer. d. product provider. e. component network. Question 12 Not yet answered Marked out of 1.00 Flag question Question text The reintroduction of an intermediary between producers and users is called: Select one: a. disintermediation. b. reinstatement. c. selective retention. d. re-establishment. e. reintermediation. Question 13 Not yet answered Marked out of 1.00 Flag question Question text The _____ is the member of the buying center who regulates the flow of information. Select one: a. decider b. influencer c. purchaser d. gatekeeper e. user Question 14 Not yet answered Marked out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Baseball DirtDirt is not dirt when it comes to baseball fields. About two-thirds of the pro baseball fields get their dirt from a dirt farm in New Jersey called Partac Peat. The company markets a secret mix for the infield (resilient), the warning track (extra crunchy), and the pitchers mounds (firm). Mounds come in red, brown, orange, and gray colors. Roger Bossard, the White Sox head groundskeeper, scouted nationwide for dirt before settling on the mix provided by Partac Peat. (He uses sand under the grassy areas of the playing field.) Refer to Baseball Dirt. The first time Roger Bossard purchased Partac Peats secret mix, it was most likely an example of which type of buying situation? Select one: a. Modified rebuy b. New buy c. Habitual buying decision d. Buying heuristics e. Straight rebuy Question 15 Not yet answered Marked out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Unprocessed extractive or agricultural products, such as copper, peanuts, soybean, bauxite, fruits, ore, and so on, that become part of finished products are examples of: Select one: a. supplies. b. OEM parts. c. component parts. d. processed materials. e. raw materials. Question 16 Not yet answered Marked out of 1.00 Flag question Question text RockTennRockTenn produces packaging products. The company makes cartons that will hold a dozen Dunkin Donuts, waffle fries for Chik-fil-A, Gillette razors, Haagen-Daz ice cream, express mail envelopes for FedEx, and much more. RockTenn business fluctuates depending on consumer demand. As plastic products become more expensive, companies turn to cardboard and paper to package their products. Refer to RockTenn. The demand for RockTenns cardboard cartons depends on how many Dunkin Donuts, Chick-fil-A waffle fries, and Chinese take-out meals consumers order. This is an example of _____ demand. Select one: a. inelastic b. derived c. joint d. fluctuating e. elastic Question 17 Not yet answered Marked out of 1.00 Flag question Question text Claxton FruitcakesOne common Christmas tradition in many households is the Claxton fruitcake. The fruitcake bakery in Claxton, Georgia, makes about six million pounds of fruitcake annually and has $12 million in sales. One fruitcake batch weighs 375 pounds. About 70 percent of that weight is fruits and nuts. A single batch is divided into 34 loaf pans that hold 11 pounds each. Loaves are cooked for 100 minutes at 375 degrees. The bakery can cook 6,000 pounds at a time. During the baking season (August to December), the bakery uses a tractor-trailer load of raisins each day. The suggested retail price of a one-pound Claxton fruitcake is $3.69. Refer to Claxton Fruitcakes. In terms of business-to-business products, the flour used in fruitcakes is an example of: Select one: a. OEM supplies. b. installations. c. MRO supplies. d. processed materials. e. accessory supplies. Question 18 Not yet answered Marked out of 1.00 Flag question Question text One brand of tomato sauce advertises that the tomatoes it uses are processed within 24 hours of being picked to ensure product freshness. The fresh tomatoes it buys from growers are examples of: Select one: a. OEM parts. b. raw materials. c. component parts. d. processed materials. e. supplies. Question 19 Not yet answered Marked out of 1.00 Flag question Question text _____ is the primary promotional method for the sale of all business products. Select one: a. Direct mail b. Advertising c. Personal selling d. Public relations e. Trade promotions Question 20 Not yet answered Marked out of 1.00 Flag question Question text RockTennRockTenn produces packaging products. The company makes cartons that will hold a dozen Dunkin Donuts, waffle fries for Chik-fil-A, Gillette razors, Haagen-Daz ice cream, express mail envelopes for FedEx, and much more. RockTenn business fluctuates depending on consumer demand. As plastic products become more expensive, companies turn to cardboard and paper to package their products. Refer to RockTenn. RockTenn makes paper products for companies to use in their product and service offerings. The business market consists of four categories of business customers. RockTenns customers are an example of: Select one: a. producers. b. resellers. c. governments. d. institutions. e. all of the above. e. two-stage process

engilsh paper

Reading Comprehension Practice: INSTRUCTIONS: Read this opening scene from Charles Dickens Hard Times, practicing multi-draft reading, close reading, and questioning. On the first read-through, read mainly for a sense of plot. What is happening here? After youve done the first read-through, answer question 1 below. On the second read-through, read for style and structure. Use a pen or highlighter as you read to mark repeated words, phrases, and images noticing these repetitions will help you figure out what Dickens is really saying, what his deeper meaning is. After youve finished your second read-through and marked the text, answer question 2 below. On the third read-through, put it all together, make connections, and ask questions as you read. When you combine your understanding of plot and style of whats happening and how Dickens is expressing it what do you get? What is at stake here? Which characters are in conflict? What is the conflict? Who is right . . . who do you think Dickens agrees with? Why? After your third read-through, answer questions 3 and 4 below. Reading: THOMAS GRADGRIND, sir. A man of realities. A man of facts and calculations. A man who proceeds upon the principle that two and two are four, and nothing over, and who is not to be talked into allowing for anything over. Thomas Gradgrind, sir peremptorily Thomas Thomas Gradgrind. With a rule and a pair of scales, and the multiplication table always in his pocket, sir, ready to weigh and measure any parcel of human nature, and tell you exactly what it comes to. It is a mere question of figures, a case of simple arithmetic. You might hope to get some other nonsensical belief into the head of George Gradgrind, or Augustus Gradgrind, or John Gradgrind, or Joseph Gradgrind (all supposititious, non-existent persons), but into the head of Thomas Gradgrind no, sir! In such terms Mr. Gradgrind always mentally introduced himself, whether to his private circle of acquaintance, or to the public in general. In such terms, no doubt, substituting the words ?boys and girls, for ?sir, Thomas Gradgrind now presented Thomas Gradgrind to the little pitchers before him, who were to be filled so full of facts. Indeed, as he eagerly sparkled at them from the cellarage before mentioned, he seemed a kind of cannon loaded to the muzzle with facts, and prepared to blow them clean out of the regions of childhood at one discharge. He seemed a galvanizing apparatus, too, charged with a grim mechanical substitute for the tender young imaginations that were to be stormed away. ?Girl number twenty, said Mr. Gradgrind, squarely pointing with his square forefinger, ?I dont know that girl. Who is that girl? ?Sissy Jupe, sir, explained number twenty, blushing, standing up, and curtseying. ?Sissy is not a name, said Mr. Gradgrind. ?Dont call yourself Sissy. Call yourself Cecilia. ?Its father as calls me Sissy, sir, returned the young girl in a trembling voice, and with another curtsey. ?Then he has no business to do it, said Mr. Gradgrind. ?Tell him he mustnt. Cecilia Jupe. Let me see. What is your father? ?He belongs to the horse-riding, if you please, sir. Mr. Gradgrind frowned, and waved off the objectionable calling with his hand. ?We dont want to know anything about that, here. You mustnt tell us about that, here. Your father breaks horses, dont he? ?If you please, sir, when they can get any to break, they do break horses in the ring, sir. ?You mustnt tell us about the ring, here. Very well, then. Describe your father as a horsebreaker. He doctors sick horses, I dare say? ?Oh yes, sir. ?Very well, then. He is a veterinary surgeon, a farrier, and horsebreaker. Give me your definition of a horse. (Sissy Jupe thrown into the greatest alarm by this demand.) ?Girl number twenty unable to define a horse! said Mr. Gradgrind, for the general behoof of all the little pitchers. ?Girl number twenty possessed of no facts, in reference to one of the commonest of animals! Some boys definition of a horse. Bitzer, yours. The square finger, moving here and there, lighted suddenly on Bitzer, perhaps because he chanced to sit in the same ray of sunlight which, darting in at one of the bare windows of the intensely white-washed room, irradiated Sissy. For, the boys and girls sat on the face of the inclined plane in two compact bodies, divided up the centre by a narrow interval; and Sissy, being at the corner of a row on the sunny side, came in for the beginning of a sunbeam, of which Bitzer, being at the corner of a row on the other side, a few rows in advance, caught the end. But, whereas the girl was so dark-eyed and dark-haired, that she seemed to receive a deeper and more lustrous colour from the sun, when it shone upon her, the boy was so light-eyed and light-haired that the self-same rays appeared to draw out of him what little colour he ever possessed. His cold eyes would hardly have been eyes, but for the short ends of lashes which, by bringing them into immediate contrast with something paler than themselves, expressed their form. His short-cropped hair might have been a mere continuation of the sandy freckles on his forehead and face. His skin was so unwholesomely deficient in the natural tinge, that he looked as though, if he were cut, he would bleed white. ?Bitzer, said Thomas Gradgrind. ?Your definition of a horse. ?Quadruped. Graminivorous. Forty teeth, namely twenty-four grinders, four eye-teeth, and twelve incisive. Sheds coat in the spring; in marshy countries, sheds hoofs, too. Hoofs hard, but requiring to be shod with iron. Age known by marks in mouth. Thus (and much more) Bitzer. ?Now girl number twenty, said Mr. Gradgrind. ?You know what a horse is. She curtseyed again, and would have blushed deeper, if she could have blushed deeper than she had blushed all this time. Bitzer, after rapidly blinking at Thomas Gradgrind with both eyes at once, and so catching the light upon his quivering ends of lashes that they looked like the antennae of busy insects, put his knuckles to his freckled forehead, and sat down again. The third gentleman now stepped forth. A mighty man at cutting and drying, he was; a government officer; in his way (and in most other peoples too), a professed pugilist; always in training, always with a system to force down the general throat like a bolus, always to be heard of at the bar of his little Public-office, ready to fight all England. To continue in fistic phraseology, he had a genius for coming up to the scratch, wherever and whatever it was, and proving himself an ugly customer. He would go in and damage any subject whatever with his right, follow up with his left, stop, exchange, counter, bore his opponent (he always fought All England) to the ropes, and fall upon him neatly. He was certain to knock the wind out of common sense, and render that unlucky adversary deaf to the call of time. And he had it in charge from high authority to bring about the great public-office Millennium, when Commissioners should reign upon earth. ?Very well, said this gentleman, briskly smiling, and folding his arms. ?Thats a horse. Now, let me ask you girls and boys, Would you paper a room with representations of horses? After a pause, one half of the children cried in chorus, ?Yes, sir! Upon which the other half, seeing in the gentlemans face that Yes was wrong, cried out in chorus, ?No, sir! as the custom is, in these examinations. ?Of course, No. Why wouldnt you? A pause. One corpulent slow boy, with a wheezy manner of breathing, ventured the answer, Because he wouldnt paper a room at all, but would paint it. ?You must paper it, said the gentleman, rather warmly. ?You must paper it, said Thomas Gradgrind, ?whether you like it or not. Dont tell us you wouldnt paper it. What do you mean, boy? ?Ill explain to you, then, said the gentleman, after another and a dismal pause, ?why you wouldnt paper a room with representations of horses. Do you ever see horses walking up and down the sides of rooms in reality in fact? Do you? ?Yes, sir! from one half. ?No, sir! from the other. ?Of course no, said the gentleman, with an indignant look at the wrong half. ?Why, then, you are not to see anywhere, what you dont see in fact; you are not to have anywhere, what you dont have in fact. What is called Taste, is only another name for Fact. Thomas Gradgrind nodded his approbation. ?This is a new principle, a discovery, a great discovery, said the gentleman. ?Now, Ill try you again. Suppose you were going to carpet a room. Would you use a carpet having a representation of flowers upon it? There being a general conviction by this time that ?No, sir! was always the right answer to this gentleman, the chorus of NO was very strong. Only a few feeble stragglers said Yes: among them Sissy Jupe. ?Girl number twenty, said the gentleman, smiling in the calm strength of knowledge. Sissy blushed, and stood up. ?So you would carpet your room or your husbands room, if you were a grown woman, and had a husband with representations of flowers, would you? said the gentleman. ?Why would you? ?If you please, sir, I am very fond of flowers, returned the girl. ?And is that why you would put tables and chairs upon them, and have people walking over them with heavy boots? ?It wouldnt hurt them, sir. They wouldnt crush and wither, if you please, sir. They would be the pictures of what was very pretty and pleasant, and I would fancy ? ?Ay, ay, ay! But you mustnt fancy, cried the gentleman, quite elated by coming so happily to his point. ?Thats it! You are never to fancy. ?You are not, Cecilia Jupe, Thomas Gradgrind solemnly repeated, ?to do anything of that kind. ?Fact, fact, fact! said the gentleman. And ?Fact, fact, fact! repeated Thomas Gradgrind. ?You are to be in all things regulated and governed, said the gentleman, ?by fact. We hope to have, before long, a board of fact, composed of commissioners of fact, who will force the people to be a people of fact, and of nothing but fact. You must discard the word Fancy altogether. You have nothing to do with it. You are not to have, in any object of use or ornament, what would be a contradiction in fact. You dont walk upon flowers in fact; you cannot be allowed to walk upon flowers in carpets. You dont find that foreign birds and butterflies come and perch upon your crockery; you cannot be permitted to paint foreign birds and butterflies upon your crockery. You never meet with quadrupeds going up and down walls; you must not have quadrupeds represented upon walls. You must use, said the gentleman, ?for all these purposes, combinations and modifications (in primary colours) of mathematical figures which are susceptible of proof and demonstration. This is the new discovery. This is fact. This is taste. The girl curtseyed, and sat down. She was very young, and she looked as if she were frightened by the matter-of-fact prospect the world afforded.

Lesson 1 Reading: Iriye 1) When did WWII begin in Asia? WWII began when the Kwantung Army known as Manchuria attacked chines forces in

Lesson 1 Reading: Iriye 1) When did WWII begin in Asia? WWII began when the Kwantung Army known as Manchuria attacked chines forces in Mukden, which was an important city in Manchuria. This all occurred in September 1931. (Introduction; Akira Iriye, Pg. 3) 2) Who governed the Chinese Republic? The Chinese Republic was governed since the overthrow of the Ching dynasty in 1911 by Chiang Kai-shek of the Nationalist party. (Introduction; Akira Iriye, Pg. 4) 3) What was the League of Nations? The League of Nations was an international organization that existed to promote international cooperation and preserve global peace.The League achieved some success, but it ultimately was unable to prevent WWII. By not imposing sanction japan was able to extend its empire and withdrew from the league of nations. 4) What was a rational for the Japanese government to invade Manchuria? It was rational for Japan to invade Manchuria, to further expand its empire. Japan also possibly seen this as an opportunity to detach Manchuria from the new formed China proper Nationalist under Chiang Kai-shek. Who had domestic opposition to his rule from the Chinese Communist.They possibly seen this as an opportunity to gain social likeability from the Chinese people. 5) What happened in 1937 between China and Japan? In 1937 skirmishes between Chinese and Japanese troops a few miles outside of Peipng grew into a full scale conflict. That resulted in bitter relationships between the two countrys and escalated confidence within the Chinese Nationalist to 6) What was the so-called Greater East Asian Co-prosperity Sphere? 7) The China Problem had consisted of three issues. What were they? 8) How many proposals Japan submitted to the US in November 1941? 9) How many meetings did Cordell Hull, Secretary of State, summon in November 1941? 10) Who participated in these meetings? 11) According to Usui, what were Japans concessions? 12) What was Gots article about? 13) Who was Mohammad Hatta? 14) How did Hatta view WWII? 15) Who was Ahmad Subardjo? Yoshida 1) Why reading the acknowledgment is important? 2) In the 1943 history textbook (pp. 3-4), how was the war and NM described? Whose atrocities were included and excluded? 3) What was the Nanjing government? 4) What does revisionist (p. 5) mean? 5) Why Yoshida wrote the book? 6) How does Yoshida define the Asia-Pacific War? When did it begin and end? 7) Discuss the views/narratives that challenged the official view of the war with China. 8) What was Living Soldiers? Who wrote it? 9) Who was Yanaihara Tadao? 10) Who was Kaji Wataru? 11) Who was Wellington Koo? 12) What was the so-called Tanaka Memorial? 13) How did the Nationalist govt saw NM? How did its view differ from that of the foreign humanitarians in Nanjing? 14) Who was Tilman Durdin? What did he do? 15) Who was Archibald Steele? What did he do? 16) Who was Hino Ashihei? What did he do? 17) Who was Henry Luce? 18) Who was Song Meiling? 19) Who was Harold Timperley? 20) Who was James Young? 21) Who was Bradford Smith? 22) What was Amerasia? 23) How did the Nanjing Massacre influence public opinion in the US? Film: 1) What were the things common between Hitler and Chaplin? 2) Describe childhood of Chaplin and Hitler. 3) Where was Hitler on August 1, 1914? 4) Where was Hitler when Germany was defeated in 1918? 5) According to the film, what contributed most for Hitler to reach power? 6) How well could Chaplin speak German? 7) How did Chaplin evaluate Hitler as an actor? 8) How was Chaplin described in the Nazi propaganda book? 9) How did many Americans perceive Hitler and Germany in the early 1930s? 10) Who was Martin Dies? What did he argue? 11) Who organized rallies in Madison Square Garden? 12) How did Hitler consider about American films? 13) When did Chaplin announce his new film? 14) Which nation did Chaplin think to defeat Nazism? 15) What did Chaplin notice in photographs of Hitlers den? 16) What was Chaplins original idea about the ending of the film? 17) Fill in the blanks: Im sorry, but I dont want to be an ___. Thats not my business. I dont want to rule or conquer anyone. I should like to ___ everyone: Jew, ___, ___, ___. We all want to help one another. ____ ___ are like that. We want to live by each others ____, not each others __. We dont want to hate or despise one another. . ____ has poisoned mens souls, has barricaded the world with hate, has goose-stepped us into misery and bloodshed. . ___ that gives abundance has left us __ ___. Our knowledge has made us cynical, our cleverness, hard and unkind. We ___ too much and __ too little. More than ___ we need ___. 18) Why was Chaplin locked out of the US in 1952? Lesson 2 What were the broad causes of the Pacific War? Were these causes open to negotiated solutions? Do the documents indicate that there was a fatal lack of communication between Washington and Tokyo? Do you think that if there had been any ways for the US and the Japanese governments to avoid the war? When did the Japanese government adopt Proposals A and B? Why? Who participated in the imperial conference on Nov 5, 1941? What did the record of the imperial conference indicate? What were the items of the agenda? Why Japan decided to go to war against US and GB? How did Tg view the US attitudes toward Japan since the start of the German-Soviet War? What did Tg expect to Germany and Italy? Summarize the view of Sugiyama. Did he expect easy victory? According to Sugiyama, why Japan should go to war against US and GB sooner? What did US and Japan agreed, and what not? What were the Four Principles proposed by US? Why Nagano was so confident of victory? What was Haras concern about race? How did the American leaders learn the contents of Plans A and B? According to Hull, what were the three issues that Japan need to accomplish? Based on the reading of the documents (pp. 41-62), do you think that many US leaders thought that it would make any sense to consider accepting part of Plan B as a temporary expedient? Lesson 3 Compare the two draft proposals with the final one. What are the similarities and differences? What do these documents suggest? What was Churchills view regarding the proposed agreement with Japan? Why do you think the US government decided to present the so-called Hull note, instead of the drafted proposal? What was the Hull note? From the view point of the Japanese government, which items in Section II were hard to agree? (pp. 75-77) Discuss Japans view of the Hull note Discuss the Imperial Conference on December 1, 1941. According to Tg, why shouldnt the Japanese empire accept the Hull note? Why do you think that the Conference decided to go to war? If you had participated in the Conference what would have been your position? What role did the emperor seem to play? What was Japans December 7 note? What did it say? When did the US leaders receive from the Japanese envoys? When did the US leaders learn the contents of the note? Why was the note delivered to the Statement after the Pearl Harbor attack? When did the ambassador and Kurusu arrive at the State Department? What time were they supposed to see Hull? When did they actually see the Secretary? How did the Secretary respond to the note delivered by the Japanese envoys? What document did the Japanese Foreign Ministry draft? What was it about? Was it actually delivered to the US embassy in Tokyo? China had been divided loosely into three segments. What were they? When did the Soviet Union signed a neutrality treaty with Japan? What was the official Chinese policy regarding US? What were Chiangs tactics to achieve his objectives? Why did the Soviet Union conclude the neutrality pact with Japan? Which countries benefited from the growing crisis in US-Japanese relations? Who was Richard Sorge? What was the Atlantic Charter? Which territories were included in the British Commonwealth? What was the Tydings-McDuffie Act (1934)? What was the Vichy government in Indochina? (1940-3/45)? Lesson 4 What was the First Committee? What was an optimistic view prevailed among middle-rank army and navy officers around April 1941? Who was Matsuoka Ysuke? Why didnt the Japanese leaders abrogate the Tripartite Pact? According to Minoru Nomura, what prodded Japan into the war? When did the political party government system cease? According to Nomura, who controlled the government from 1936 to 1945? How did the Japanese leaders expect to end the war? According to Nomura, what was the major reason for adopting the Kamikaze dives in the final stage of the war? Who was Joseph Grew? Why did Grew think that US should not rush into war w/ Japan? What was the purpose of Grews telegram of Nov 3, 1941? According to Heinrichs, why did the American government back away from the modus vivendi idea? When did Grew meet with Tg? What document did Grew receive? What did Tg do to Grew? Grew believed that war with Japan could have been avoided. Would you agree with Grew? Who was Frank B. Rowlett? When did Rowlett break Purple? Who was Laurance F Safford? Who was William F. Friedman? What did Secretary of State Henry Stimson do as to the departments funds for cryptanalysts? Did he believe that codebreaking was a legitimate function of a diplomatic service? According to David Kahn, what was Japans intention when it attacked Pearl Harbor? According to Kahn, why did the US govt failed to forsee the Pearl Harbor attack? What went wrong? According to Wang Xi, what was a major reason that dragged Japan into the Chinese-Japanese and the Pacific Wars? As of September 1939, what was Britains policy toward Japan? What was the Asaka Maru? Who said I could not conceal my relief and did not have to try to. I felt that whatever happened now, it was merely a matter of time? According to Bernd Martin, how close German-Japanese ties were? When did he come up with a basic plan for Operation Barbarossa? What was the central topic of discussion at Liaison Conferences? What was Matsuoka Ysukes position? According to Martin, what was the influence of the Tripartite Pact on US-Japanese peace negotiations? When did the other Axis Powers agreed in writing to enter an eventual war with the United States? How did the Soviet leaders view US-Japanese relations? According to Filtov, why the Soviet Union decided to sign the Neutrality Treaty with Japan? What was the concern for Soviet diplomacy in the wake of Pearl Harbor? I need all the question answered and I answerd the first couple as examples. They dont need to be quoted I just quoted the ones I had found in the book.

Leadership and Values

This exercise will help you to evaluate how values may impact leadership. Read the situations outlined in Chapter 6 What would you do? HIGHLIGHT 6.2 in your textbook. Choose one and write a 4-6 page paper considering the following points: How did you determine what was ?right and ?wrong about the situation? What moral principles did you use to make that determination? What do you consider to be the ethical stand and the unethical stand in response to the situation you chose? What values did you use to make that determination? If you were directed by your leader to take the opposite stance to the one you are most comfortable with, how do you think you would you react? Would you be willing to take a stand? What stressors would there be on your decision? For example, if you were at risk of losing your job, would you do as you are told rather than what you feel you should do? Chapter 6.2 is below Qus are at the top 1-3 Introduction In the previous chapter, we examined many different facets of power and its use in leadership. The topics in this chapter go hand in hand with understanding the role of power in leadership. That is because leaders can use power for good or ill, and the leaders personal values may be one of the most important determinants of how power is exercised or constrained. For example, a political leader may be able to stir a group into a frenzy (and become even more popular) by identifying a scapegoat to blame for a communitys or nations problems, but would it be right? Is it ever right for a political leader to stir a populace into a frenzy? And what standards should govern the application of such power? Or, a person may be promoted to leadership positions of ever-greater responsibility and reward, but at a cost of broken relationships in his family life; would you choose that trade-off? The mere possession of power, of any kind, leads inevitably to ethical questions about how that power should and should not be used. The challenge of leadership becomes even more complex when we consider how individuals of different backgrounds, cultures, and nationalities may hold quite different values yet be thrown into increasingly closer interaction with each other as our world becomes both smaller and more diverse. This chapter will explore these fascinating and important aspects of leadership. Leadership and Doing the Right Things In Chapter 1, we referred to a distinction between leaders and managers that says leaders do the right things whereas managers do things right. But just what does the right things mean? Does it mean the morally right things? The ethically right things? The right things for the company to be successful? And whos to say what the right things are? Leaders face dilemmas that require choices between competing sets of values and priorities, and the best leaders recognize and face them with a commitment to doing what is right, not just what is expedient. Of course, the phrase doing what is right sounds deceptively simple. Sometimes it will take great moral courage to do what is right, even when the right action seems clear. At other times, though, leaders face complex challenges that lack simple black-and-white answers. Whichever the case, leaders set a moral example to others that becomes the model for an entire group or organization, for good or bad. Leaders who themselves do not honor truth do not inspire it in others. Leaders mostly concerned with their own advancement do not inspire selflessness in others. Leaders should internalize a strong set of ethics, principles of right conduct or a system of moral values. Leadership cannot just go along to get along . . . Leadership must meet the moral challenge of the day. Both Gardner1 and Burns2 have stressed the centrality and importance of the moral dimension of leadership. Gardner said leaders ultimately must be judged on the basis of a framework of values, not just in terms of their effectiveness. He put the question of a leaders relations with his or her followers or constituents on the moral plane, arguing (with the philosopher Immanuel Kant) that leaders should always treat others as ends in themselves, not as objects or mere means to the leaders ends (which, however, does not necessarily imply that leaders need to be gentle in interpersonal demeanor or democratic in style). Burns took an even more extreme view regarding the moral dimension of leadership, maintaining that leaders who do not behave ethically do not demonstrate true leadership. Whatever true leadership means, most people would agree that at a minimum it would be characterized by a high degree of trust between leader and followers. Bennis and Goldsmith3 describe four qualities of leadership that engender trust. These qualities are vision, empathy, consistency, and integrity. First, we tend to trust leaders who create a compelling vision: who pull people together on the basis of shared beliefs and a common sense of organizational purpose and belonging. Second, we tend to trust leaders who demonstrate empathy with uswho show they understand the world as we see and experience it. Third, we trust leaders who are consistent. This does not mean that we only trust leaders whose positions never change, but that changes are understood as a process of evolution in light of relevant new evidence. Fourth, we tend to trust leaders whose integrity is strong, who demonstrate their commitment to higher principles through their actions. Another important factor impacting the degree of trust between leaders and followers involves fundamental assumptions people make about human nature. Several decades ago, Douglas McGregor4 explained different styles of managerial behavior on the basis of peoples implicit attitudes about human nature, and his work remains quite influential today. 167168McGregor identified two contrasting sets of assumptions people make about human nature, calling these Theory X and Theory Y. In the simplest sense, Theory X reflects a more pessimistic view of others. Managers with this orientation rely heavily on coercive, external-control methods to motivate workers such as pay, disciplinary techniques, punishments, and threats. They assume people are not naturally industrious or motivated to work. Hence, it is the managers job to minimize the harmful effects of workers natural laziness and irresponsibility by closely overseeing their work and creating external incentives to do well and disincentives to avoid slacking off. Theory Y, on the other hand, reflects a view that most people are intrinsically motivated by their work. Rather than needing to be coaxed or coerced to work productively, such people value a sense of achievement, personal growth, pride in contributing to their organization, and respect for a job well done. Peter Jackson, the director of the Lord of the Rings film trilogy, seems to exemplify a Theory Y view of human nature. When asked, How do you stand up to executives? Jackson answered, Well, I just find that most people appreciate honesty. I find that if you try not to have any pretensions and you tell the truth, you talk to them and you treat them as collaborators, I find that studio people are usually very supportive. But are there practical advantages to holding a Theory X or Theory Y view? Evidently there are. There is evidence that success more frequently comes to leaders who share a positive view of human nature. Hall and Donnell5 reported findings of five separate studies involving over 12,000 managers that explored the relationship between managerial achievement and attitudes toward subordinates. Overall, they found that managers who strongly subscribed to Theory X beliefs were far more likely to be in their lower-achieving group. high lights 6.2 Here are several situations in which values play a large part in determining your response. How would you act in each one, and by what principles or reasoning process do you reach each decision? Would you vote for a political candidate who was honest, competent, and agreed with you on most issues if you also knew that person was alcoholic, sexually promiscuous, and twice divorced? Assume that as a teenager you smoked marijuana once or twice, but that was years ago. Would you answer truthfully on an employment questionnaire if it asked whether you had ever used marijuana? Your military unit has been ambushed by enemy soldiers and suffered heavy casualties. Several of your soldiers have been captured, but you also captured one of the enemy soldiers. Would you torture the captured enemy soldier if that were the only way of saving the lives of your own soldiers? Terrorists have captured a planeload of tourists and threatened to kill them unless ransom demands are met. You believe that meeting the ransom demands is likely to lead to the safe release of those passengers, but also likely to inspire future terrorist acts. Would you meet the terrorists demands (and probably save the hostages) or refuse to meet the terrorists demands (and reduce the likelihood of future incidents)? If you were an elementary school principal, would you feel it was part of your schools responsibility to teach moral values, or only academic subject matter? Assume that you have been elected to your states legislature, and that you are about to cast the deciding vote in determining whether abortions will be legally available to women in your state. What would you do if your own strong personal convictions on this issue were contrary to the views of the majority of the people you represent? Source: Adapted from G. Stock, The Book of Questions: Business, Politics, and Ethics. New York: Workman Publishing, 1991. Values also help leaders choose right from wrong, and between ethical and unethical behavior. Along these lines, research has shown that leaders with strong Commercial values and weak Altruistic values are often seen as greedy and selfish.22 Many of these leaders are so obsessed with wealth and material possessions that they think nothing of cooking the books in order to make money. Unfortunately, many of the high-visibility examples from Enron, Arthur Andersen, Tyco, WorldCom, Charter Communications, Computer Associates, Parmalat, Ahold NV, Boeing, Royal Dutch Shell, and the investment banking and mutual fund industries seem to confirm the notion that many top-level executives are willing to do whatever it takes in order to make money (see Highlight 6.3). Even those executives with strong Commercial and weak Altruistic values who do not engage in organizationally delinquent behaviors think nothing of cutting thousands of jobs in order to improve shareholder value. These same executives, who also happen to own a considerable number of shares in their companies, often run their companies into the ground but personally make tens to hundreds of millions of dollars in the 176177process (examples include the Qwest acquisition of US West or the AOL?Time Warner merger).

STRAYER FIN 534 WEEK 1 QUIZ 1, 15 MCQs. Get an A++.

Question 1 You recently sold 100 shares of your new company, XYZ Corporation, to your brother at a family reunion. At the reunion your brother gave you a check for the stock and you gave your brother the stock certificates. Which of the following statements best describes this transaction? 1) This is an example of an exchange of physical assets. 2) This is an example of a primary market transaction. 3) This is an example of a direct transfer of capital. 4) This is an example of a money market transaction. 5) This is an example of a derivatives market transaction. Question 2 Which of the following statements is CORRECT? 1) While the distinctions are blurring, investment banks generally specialize in lending money, whereas commercial banks generally help companies raise capital from other parties 2) A liquid security is a security whose value is derived from the price of some other underlying asset 3) Money market mutual funds usually invest most of their money in a well-diversified portfolio of liquid common stocks. 4) Money markets are markets for long-term debt and common stocks. 5) The NYSE operates as an auction market, whereas the Nasdaq is a dealer market Question 3 Which of the following statements is CORRECT? 1) The NYSE does not exist as a physical location; rather it represents a loose collection of dealers who trade stock electronically. 2) An example of a primary market transaction would be your uncle transferring 100 shares of Wal-Mart stock to you as a birthday gift. 3) Capital market instruments include both long-term debt and common stocks. 4) If your uncle in New York sold 100 shares of Microsoft through his broker to an investor in Los Angeles, this would be a primary market transaction. 5) While the two frequently perform similar functions, investment banks generally specialize in lending money, whereas commercial banks generally help companies raise large blocks of capital from investors. Question 4 Which of the following statements is CORRECT? 1) It is usually easier to transfer ownership in a corporation than it is to transfer ownership in a sole proprietorship 2) Corporate shareholders are exposed to unlimited liability. 3) Corporations generally face fewer regulations than sole proprietorships. 4) Corporate shareholders are exposed to unlimited liability, and this factor may be compounded by the tax disadvantages of incorporation. 5) There is a tax disadvantage to incorporation, and there is no way any corporation can escape this disadvantage, even if it is very small Question 5 Which of the following statements is CORRECT? 1) One disadvantage of operating as a corporation rather than as a partnership is that corporate shareholders are exposed to more personal liability than partners 2) There is no good reason to expect a firms stockholders and bondholders to react differently to the types of new asset investments a firm makes 3) Bondholders are generally more willing than stockholders to have managers invest in risky projects with high potential returns as opposed to safer projects with lower expected returns 4) Stockholders are generally more willing than bondholders to have managers invest in risky projects with high potential returns as opposed to safer projects with lower expected returns 5) Relative to sole proprietorships, corporations generally face fewer regulations, and this makes it easier for corporations to raise capital Question 6 Suppose the U.S. Treasury announces plans to issue $50 billion of new bonds. Assuming the announcement was not expected, what effect, other things held constant, would that have on bond prices and interest rates? 1) Prices and interest rates would both rise. 2) Prices would rise and interest rates would decline. 3) Prices and interest rates would both decline. 4) There would be no changes in either prices or interest rates. 5) Prices would decline and interest rates would rise. Question 7 Which of the following statements is CORRECT? 1) Corporations are at a disadvantage relative to partnerships because they have to file more reports to state and federal agencies, including the Securities and Exchange Administration, even if they are not publicly owned 2) In a regular partnership, liability for the firms debts is limited to the amount a particular partner has invested in the business 3) A fast-growth company would be more likely to set up as a partnership for its business organization than would a slow-growth company 4) Partnerships have difficulty attracting capital in part because of their unlimited liability, the lack of impermanence of the organization, and difficulty in transferring ownership 5) A major disadvantage of a partnership relative to a corporation as a form of business organization is the high cost and practical difficulty of its formation Question 8 Which of the following statements is CORRECT? 1) In a regular partnership, liability for other partners misdeeds is limited to the amount of a particular partners investment in the business 2) Partnerships have more difficulty attracting large amounts of capital than corporations because of such factors as unlimited liability, the need to reorganize when a partner dies, and the illiquidity (difficulty buying and selling) of partnership interests 3) A slow-growth company, with little need for new capital, would be more likely to organize as a corporation than would a faster growing company 4) In a limited partnership, the limited partners have voting control, while the general partner has operating control over the business. Also, the limited partners are individually responsible, on a pro rata basis, for the firms debts in the event of bankruptcy. 5) A major disadvantage of all partnerships relative to all corporations is the fact that federal income taxes must be paid by the partners rather than by the firm itself Question 9 Which of the following statements is CORRECT? 1) If you purchase 100 shares of Disney stock from your brother-in-law, this is an example of a primary market transaction. 2) If Disney issues additional shares of common stock through an investment banker, this would be a secondary market transaction. 3) The NYSE is an example of an over-the-counter market. 4) Only institutions, and not individuals, can engage in derivative market transactions. 5) As they are generally defined, money market transactions involve debt securities with maturities of less than one year Question 10 Which of the following factors would be most likely to lead to an increase in interest rates in the economy? 1) Households reduce their consumption and increase their savings 2) The Federal Reserve decides to try to stimulate the economy. 3) There is a decrease in expected inflation 4) The economy falls into a recession 5) Most businesses decide to modernize and expand their manufacturing capacity, and to install new equipment to reduce labor costs Question 11 Which of the following statements is CORRECT? 1) Hedge funds are legal in Europe and Asia, but they are not permitted to operate in the United States 2) Hedge funds have more in common with commercial banks than with any other type of financial institution 3) Hedge funds have more in common with investment banks than with any other type of financial institution 4) Hedge funds are legal in the United States, but they are not permitted to operate in Europe or Asia 5) The justification for the light regulation of hedge funds is that only sophisticated investors with high net worths and high incomes are permitted to invest in these funds, and such investors supposedly can do the necessary due diligence on their own rather than have it done by the SEC or some other regulator Question 12 Which of the following statements is CORRECT? 1) The New York Stock Exchange is an auction market with a physical location 2) Capital market transactions involve only the purchase and sale of equity securities, i.e., common stocks 3) If an investor sells shares of stock through a broker, then this would be a primary market transaction. 4) Consumer automobile loans are evidenced by legal documents called promissory notes, and these individual notes are traded in the money market 5) Consumer automobile loans are evidenced by legal documents called promissory notes, and these individual notes are traded in the money market Question 13 Which of the following statements is CORRECT? 1) The corporate bylaws are a standard set of rules established by the state of incorporation. These rules are identical for all corporations in the state, and their purpose is to ensure that the firms managers run the firm in accordance with state laws 2) The corporate charter is a standard document prescribed by the state of incorporation, and its purpose is to ensure that the firms managers run the firm in accordance with state laws. Procedures for electing corporate directors are contained in bylaws, while the declaration of the activities that the firm will pursue and the number of directors are included in the corporate charter. 3) Companies must establish a home office, or domicile, in a particular state, and that state must be the one in which most of their business (sales, manufacturing, and so forth) is conducted 4) Attorney fees are generally involved when a company develops its charter and bylaws, but since these documents are voluntary, a new corporation can avoid these costs by deciding not to have either a charter or bylaws 5) The corporate charter is concerned with things like what business the company will engage in, whereas the bylaws are concerned with things like procedures for electing the board of directors Question 14 Which of the following statements is CORRECT? 1) If expected inflation increases, interest rates are likely to increase 2) If individuals in general increase the percentage of their income that they save, interest rates are likely to increase 3) If companies have fewer good investment opportunities, interest rates are likely to increase 4) Interest rates on all debt securities tend to rise during recessions because recessions increase the possibility of bankruptcy, hence the riskiness of all debt securities 5) Interest rates on long-term bonds are more volatile than rates on short-term debt securities like T-bills Question 15 The primary operating goal of a publicly-owned firm interested in serving its stockholders should be to ____ 1) maximize its expected total corporate income 2) maximize its expected EPS 3) minimize the chances of losses 4) maximize the stock price per share over the long run, which is the stocks intrinsic value 5) maximize the stock price on a specific target date

MKT500 Marketing Plan All Three Parts 100 Percent Correct Solution

Assignment 1: Part A: Your Marketing Plan From the start of this course, you have accessed the Interactive Marketing Plan tool and used the step-by-step guide to complete Part A of your marketing plan. You are required to submit a marketing plan for a hypothetical company. Your plan must include the companys background information, as well as information collected from Steps 1- 4 of the Interactive Marketing Plan, located in the course shell. Note: You may create and /or make all necessary assumptions needed for the completion of this assignment. Write 9-10 page paper in which you: Construct a concise executive summary that provides the details of the outcomes of your marketing plan outcomes. The relevant outcomes include profitability, shareholder returns, and return on investment. Conduct an environmental analysis that includes competitive, economic, political, legal, technological, and sociocultural forces. Specify the primary and secondary target markets for your company. Develop a branding strategy for your product / service that covers the brand name, logo, slogan, and at least one (1) brand extension. Conduct a performance analysis with set benchmarks of 50% to 75% per annualized plan. Your analysis should include at least four (4) of the following metrics: tracking downloads of website content, Web site visitors, increases in market share, customer value, new product adoption rates, retention, rate of growth compared to competition and the market, margin, and customer engagement. Develop four (4) quantitative and (4) qualitative marketing objectives from your chosen metrics. Conduct both a SWOT analysis and needs analysis for your product/service. Each analysis should examine four (4) strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for your company. Develop a marketing strategy for your product / service and determine an appropriate timeframe for execution of the plan, i.e. 5, 10, 15 years. Provide a rationale for your timeframe for execution. Develop a positioning statement which should include, at a minimum, i.e., a benefit, user, competitive, or innovative statement about your product / service. Provide a rationale for your timeframe for execution of your positioning statement. Examine the relevant marketing science of customer behavior for your product / service. Use at least four (4) academic resources as quantitative marketing research to determine the feasibility of your product/service. These resources should be industry specific and relate to your chosen product/service. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not quality as academic resources. Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements: ú Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions. ú Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the students name, the professors name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length. The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are: 13. Analyze the marketing framework including the concepts of the 5Cs, STP, and 4Ps. 14. Examine the marketing science of customer behavior and products in the marketing exchange process and create dynamic strategies for competing. 15. Evaluate the basis for market segmentation and approaches to segmentation. 16. Evaluate and target customer segments and positioning products within these segments. 17. Create an effective marketing plan. 18. Use technology and information resources to research issues in marketing management. 19. Write clearly and concisely about marketing management using proper writing mechanics. Assignment 2: Part B: Your Marketing Plan For this assignment, you will include Part A of your marketing plan which has addressed the feedback from your professor. You will also need Steps 5-7 of the Interactive Marketing Plan, which you have completed within the course shell. In this final assignment, you will compile the previous assignment, addressing the feedback from your professor, as well as adding the marketing strategies. Note: You may create and / or make all necessary assumptions needed for the completion of this assignment. Write an (10-11) page paper in which you: 1. Revise your executive summary from Assignment 1, based on the outcomes and implementation of your marketing plan. 2. Develop your companys mission statement and company introduction. 3. Develop the companys branding, pricing, and distribution plan. 4. Provide the following marketing strategy information: a. Classify the companys major competitors as inter- or intra-competitors. Categorize the competitors major strengths and weaknesses. b. Develop the differentiation strategy in relation to the closest competitor. c. Establish whether the companys intention is to be a leader or follower within the industry. d. Assess the level of impact that the salient macro-environmental issues (e.g., legal, technological, social, and economic, etc.) and trends with which the company must contend could potentially have on the companys marketing strategy. e. Predict the most significant trend to impact the business. Formulate a strategy for the company to minimize or capitalize on this trend. 5. Construct an implementation strategy for your hypothetical company in which you specify the essential activities and responsibilities. Include a timetable for completion of each component of your strategy. 6. Develop a five (5) year expansion plan that includes future profitability and market share growth .Include necessary graphs to explain your plan. 7. Specify two (2) social media and / or media tools that you would use as you develop your plan. Justify each of your chosen tools. 8. Choose two (2) performance standards, two (2) monitory methods, and two (2) financial controls that you would implement that differ from the standards that you had provided in Assignment 1.Justify your choices. 9. Assess the potential for your companys overall performance in relation to the marketing plan objectives. 10. Suggest the integrated marketing communications that are most relevant for your marketing plan. Relate each marketing communication to your companys advertising strategy. 11. Use at least five (5) academic resources that address sustainability and monitoring of effective marketing plans and determine the applicability for your hypothetical company. These resources should be industry specific and relate to your chosen product / service. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not quality as academic resources. Assignment 3: Part C: Your Marketing Plan Due Week 8 and worth 280 points From the start of this course, you have accessed the Interactive Marketing Plan tool and used the step-by-step guide to complete Part C of your marketing plan. You are required to submit a marketing plan for a hypothetical product-based company. Your plan must include the companys social media strategy, and information collected from Steps 6-7 of the Interactive Marketing Plan, located in the course shell. Note: Some elements may not be covered in the Interactive Marketing Plan and will require additional research. Note: You may create and / or make all necessary assumptions needed for the completion of this assignment. Write a six to seven (6-7) page paper in which you: 1. Develop the companys branding, pricing, and distribution strategy. 2. Provide the following marketing strategy information: a. Classify the companys major competitors as inter- or intra-competitors. Categorize the competitors major strengths and weaknesses. b. Develop the differentiation strategy in relation to the closest competitor. c. Establish whether the companys intention is to be a leader or follower within the industry. d. Assess the level of impact that the salient macro-environmental issues (e.g., legal, technological, social, and economic, etc.) and trends with which the company must contend could potentially have on the companys marketing strategy. e. Discuss the marketing research tools that you used in your marketing strategy. 3. Construct an implementation strategy for your hypothetical company in which you specify the essential activities and responsibilities. Include a timetable for completion of each component of your strategy. 4. Develop a five (5) year expansion plan that includes future profitability and market share growth. Include necessary graphs to explain your plan. 5. Specify two (2) social media and / or media tools that you would use as you develop your plan. Justify each of your chosen tools. 6. Choose two (2) performance standards, two (2) monitory methods, and two (2) financial controls that you would implement that differ from the standards that you had provided in Assignment 1. Justify your choices. 7. Assess the potential for your companys overall performance in relation to the marketing plan objectives. 8. Suggest the integrated marketing communications that are most relevant for your marketing plan. Relate each marketing communication to your companys advertising strategy. 9. Use at least five (5) academic resources that address sustainability and monitoring of effective marketing plans and determine the applicability for your hypothetical company. These resources should be industry specific and relate to your chosen product / service. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not qualify as academic resources. Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements: ú Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions. ú Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the students name, the professors name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length. The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are: ú Develop strategies to assess performance and achieve marketing goals. ú Develop pricing strategies and distribution channels for products. ú Analyze integrated marketing communications and its relationship to advertising strategy. ú Design customer satisfaction evaluation processes and quality assurance measurements. ú Evaluate marketing research tools involved in the marketing process. ú Use technology and information resources to research issues in marketing management. ú Write clearly and concisely about marketing management using proper writing mechanics.